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Jos, A, Y/addell 



Augusta County, Virginia 



J. W. RANDOLPH & ENGLISH, Publishers, 




The chief object of this Supplement is to preserve some ac- 
count of many pioneer settlers of Augusta county and their 
immediate descendants. It would be impossible, within any 
reasonable limits, to include the existing generation, and hence 
the names of living persons are generally omitted. The writer 
regrets that he cannot present here sketches of other ancient and 
worthy families, such as the Andersons, Christians, Hamiltons, 
Kerrs, McPheeterses, Millers, Pattersons, Pilsons, Walkers, etc. 
The genealogies of several of the oldest and most distinguished 
families — Lewis, Preston, Houston, etc. — are omitted, because 
they are given fully in other publications. For much valuable 
assistance the writer is indebted to Jacob Fuller, Esq. , Librarian 
of Washington and Lee University, and especially to Miss Alice 
Trimble, of New Vienna, Ohio. 

J. A. W. 

Staunton, Va., March, 1888. 



Early Records of Orange County Court 381 

The Rev. John Craig and His Times 388 

Gabriel Jones, the King's Attorney 392 

The Campbells . , , 396 

The Bordens, McDowells and McClungs 398 

The Browns 400 

Mrs. Floyd's Narrative 401 

The Floyds 404 

The Logans 404 

Colonel William Flipming 406 

The Estills 407 

Colonel William Whitley 408 

The Moffetts 408 

The Aliens 410 

The Trimbles 411 

Fort Defiance 413 

The Smiths 413 

The Harrisons, of Rockingham 415 

The Alexanders and Wilsons 416 

The Raid upon the Wilson Family 417 

The Robertsons 420 

Treaties with Indians 421 

The McKees 422 

The Crawfords. 423 

The Bells 430 

Capture and Rescue of Mrs. Estill and James Trimble 433 

Massacre of Thomas Gardiner and His Mother 438 

Some Curious Orders of Court 439 

The Acadian French — Alexander McNutt 440 

The Cunninghams 442 

The Poages 443 

Revolutionary War Measures 446 

An Incident of the Revolution 447 

Andrew Wallace 448 

Thomas Adams 449 

Errata 449 

Captain William Moore 450 

Colonel John Allen 450 

Emigration to Kentucky — Perils by the Way 451 

Hanging for Horse-Stealing 454 

A Night Alarm 456 

The Black Hawk War 457 

The Hunter Raid 457 

Travels About Home 458 





Augusta County, Virginia. 



The County Court of Orange was opened January 21, 1734, and among 
the justices included in the "Commission of the Peace," issued by Gov- 
ernor Gooch, were James Barbour, Zachary Taylor, Joist Hite, Morgan 
Morgan, Benjamin Borden and the ubiquitous John Smith. 

James Barbour was the grandfather of Governor James Barbour and 
Judge P. P. Barbour. 

Zachary Taylor was the grandfather of the twelfth President of the 
United States of the same name. 

Joist Hite (see page 10) and Morgan Morgan lived in the lower Valley. 
The latter was a native of Wales, and about 1726 (it is said) removed 
from Pennsylvania to Virginia, and erected the first cabin in the Valley 
south of the Potomac, and in the present county of Berkeley. He 
also erected the first Episcopal church in the Valley, about 1740, at the 
place now called Bunker Hill. He died in 1766, leaving a son of the 
same name. 

According to tradition, Colonel John Lewis met Benjamin Borden in 
Williamsburg in 1736, and invited him to accompany him home, which 
led to the acquisition by Borden of a large tract of land in the present 
county of Rockbridge, known as " Borden's Grant " (see page 16). We 
think it likely, however, that Colonel Lewis first encountered Borden 
at Orange Court. In 1734, Borden probably lived in the lower Valley, 
then a part of Orange county, as he certainly did ten years later. When 


justices of the peace were appointed for Frederick county, in Novem- 
ber, 1743, he was named as one of them, but did not qualify, having 
died about that time. His will was admitted to record by Frederick 
County Court at December term, 1743, and his son, Benjamin, succeeded 
to the management of his Rockbridge lands. 

John Smith cannot be located. We only know certainly that he was 
not the Captain John Smith, of Augusta, who figured in the Indian wars 
after 1755. He may have been the " Knight of the Golden Horseshoe," 
named Smith, who accompanied Governor Spotswood in his visit to the 
Valley in 1716. 

The first allusion in the records of Orange to Valley people is under 
date of July 20, 1736. On that day Morgan Morgan presented the peti- 
tion "of inhabitants of the western side of Shenando," which was 
ordered to be certified to the General Assembly. What the petition 
was about is not stated. The name now written " Shenandoah " was 
formerly put in various ways—" Shenando," " Sherando," " Sherundo," 

On May 21, 1737, the Grand Jury of Orange presented the Rev. John 
Beckett '' for exacting more for the marriage fee than the law directs." 
On publication of the banns he exacted fifteen shillings. The trial came 
off on the 22d of September following, and the minister, being found 
guilty, was fined five hundred pounds of tobacco. But Mr. Beckett's 
troubles did not end there. On November 25, 1737, he was reported 
to court " for concealing a tithable." 

In his work called "Old Churches and Families," etc., Bishop Meade 
says that the Rev. Mr. Beckett was regularly elected minister of St. 
Mark's parish, in May, 1733, and continued until the year 1739. He 
says further : " From something on the vestry book a year or two before, 
there would seem to have been a serious cause of complaint against 
Mr. Beckett." The proceedings in court above mentioned give a clew 
to the cause of trouble. 

Under date of September 22, 1737, we have the following: "William 
Williams, a Presbyterian minister, Gent., having taken the oaths ap- 
pointed by act of Parliament," etc., " and certified his intention of 
holding his meetings at his own plantation and on the plantation of 
Morgan Bryan," it was admitted to record, etc. From subsequent men- 
tion of Mr. Williams, it appears that he lived in what is now Frederick 
or Berkeley. He was engaged in trade, probably as a merchant, and 
was evidently too busy a trader to do much preaching. For several 
years he furnished more business to the court than any other person. 
He brought suit after suit against his customers, it is presumed, and 
was uniformly successful, obtaining judgment in every case. On the 
23d of February, 1738, two men " sent up " by Morgan I\Iorgan, J. P., on 
the charge of robbing the house of Mr. Williams, were examined and 
acquitted. At July court, 1738, a suit brought by Mr. Williams against 
the inevitable John Smith and some thirty or forty more, "for signing 
a certain scandalous paper reflecting on ye said Williams," came on. 


The preacher was again triumphant. Many of the signers of the 
"scandalous paper " " humbly acknowledged their error, begging par- 
don, were excused, paying costs" At September Court the suit was 
abated as to John Smith on account of his death. Which John Smith 
this was we have no means of ascertaining. He probably was a neigh- 
bor of Mr. Williams. 

We next find John Smith (probably the .Squire) and Benjamin Borden 
in limbo. On October 22,1737, "Zachary Lewis, Gent., attorney for 
our Sovereign Lord, the King, informed the Court that, at the houses of 
Louis Stilfy and John Smith, certain persons, viz: the said John Smith, 
John Pitts, Benjamin Borden " and others " do keep unlawful and 
tumultuous meetings tending to rebellion,'' and it was ordered that the 
sheriff take said persons into custody, etc. At November Court, "Ben- 
jamin Borden, Gent," and his roistering and rebellious companions ap- 
peared, were examined, and, " acknowledging their error," were dis- 
missed with costs. Whether the Benjamin Borden referred to was the 
father, or his son of the same name, we do not know. 

On the 28th of April, 1738, it was "ordered that ordinary keepers at 
Shenendo sell their Virginia brandy at the rate of six shillings per gal- 
lon." All the country west of the Blue Ridge was then know by the 
various names afterwards written Shenandoah 

William Beverley's deed to " William Cathrey," the first of a long series 
of deeds by Beverley to various persons, was admitted to record Sep- 
tember 28th, 1738. 

On the same day it was "ordered that the Sheriff of Sharrando give 
public notice " — exactly what cannot be made out from the writing. It 
related, however, to tithables, a list of whom was to be delivered to 
William Russell, Gent. It is presumed that a deputy sheriff of Orange 
county lived west of the Blue Ridge. 

The Act of Assembly, constituting Augusta and Frederick counties, 
was passed November i, 1738, but the business of the people of Augusta 
was transacted at Orange Courthouse till December, 1745, when the Court 
of Augusta was organized. In the meantime all persons in the Valley 
"having suits to prosecute, pleas to enter," etc., had to take the long 
trip on horseback, through the gaps in the mountain and by "bridle 
paths" to Orange, spending two or three days on the way. Moreover, 
as there was no minister of the Established Church in the Valley till 
1747, all couples living here and wishing to be married, had to travel 
across the Blue Ridge to Orange, or elsewhere, in search of a minister 
authorized by law to perform the service. 

William Beverley's deeds to John Lewis, George Hudson, George 
Robertson and Patrick Campbell were admitted to record February 22, 

On the same day, "John Lewis, Gent, having taken the oaths and 
subscribed theTest, wassworn into his military commission accordingly." 
The title, or rank, is not given, but it was no doubt that of Colonel. 

Zachary Taylor obtained license to keep an ordinary, March 22, 1739. 


And now we have the first reference to a public road west of the Blue 
Ridge. June, 1739, "John Poage, David Davis and George Hutchison 
having, according to an order of Court, viewed and laid off a road from 
Beverley Manor " etc., '' It is ordered that the said road be cleared from 
John Young's at the North Mountain to the top of the Blue Ridge to the 
bounds of Goochland county." The order of court directing the laying 
off of the road was not found. 

Early in 1740, or shortly before, there was a great influx of popu- 
lation into the Valley. On the 22d of May, 1740, fourteen heads of 
families appeared at Orange Court to "prove their importation." The 
first order of the series is as follows: 

"Alexander Breckenridge came into Court and made oath that he 

imported himself, and , John, George, Robert, , Smith, 

, and Letitia Breckenridge from Ireland to Philadelphia, and from 

thence to this colony, at his own charges, and this is the first time of 
proving his and their rights in order to obtain land, which is ordered to 
be certified." He, however, acquired by purchase from Beverley 245 
acres, on March 24, 1741. 

The blanks above indicate names which are illegible in the record 
book. Of only one of Alexander Breckenridge's children, Robert, have 
we any particular account. (See page 140.) Possibly most of the others 
died young. There is no mention in the order of the daughter named 
Sarah, but she was the wife of Robert McClanahan when the family 
came to the Valley. 

On the same day with Breckenridge, the following settlers in the 
Valley appeared in Court and proved their importation in like manner, 
all having come from Ireland through Philadelphia, viz : 

James Bell and his children, John, Margaret and Elizabeth. These 
were the " Long Glade Bells." 

John Trimble and his children, Ann, Margaret and Mary. 

John Hays and his children, Rebecca, Charles, Andrew, Barbara, 
Joan and Robert 

Patrick Hays and his children, Francis, Joan, William, Margaret, 
Catharine and Ruth. 

William Brown and his children, Mary, Robert, Hugh and Margaret, 

Robert Patterson, his wife Grace, and his children, Thomas, Mary 
and Elizabeth. 

David Logan, his wife, Jane, and his children, Mary and William. 

Robert Poage, his wife, Elizabeth, and his children, Margaret, John, 
Martha, Sarah, George, Mary, Elizabeth, William and Robert. 

John Anderson, his wife, Jane, and his children, Esther, Mary and 

George Anderson, his wife, Elizabeth, and his children, William, 
Margaret, John and Frances. 

Samuel Scott, his wife, Jane, and son, John. 

Robert Scott, his wife, Ann, and his children, Mary, George and 


David Wilson, his wife, Charity, and son, fames. 

James Caldwell and his children, Mary, Jean, Agnes, John, Sarah and 

John Steven.^on and his children, Sarah and Mary. 

John Preston came in with Breckenridge and others, but postponed 
proving his importation till 1746, when he appeared before the court 
of Augusta, "to partake of his Majesty's bounty for taking up lands." 
(See page 31.) 

On the 26th of June, 1740, the following Augusta people "proved 
their importation," having come from Ireland through Philadelphia, viz : 

Hugh Campbell and his children, Esther and .Sarah. 

Robert Young and his children, Agnes, John, Samuel and James. 

John Smith, his wife, Margaret, his children, Abraham, Henry, Dan- 
iel, John and Joseph, and Robert McDowell. This was Captain John 
Smith, of Augusta, who became prominent during the Indian wars, as 
did his sons, Abraham, Daniel and John. 

Henry Downs was presented by the Grand Jury, November 27, 1740, 
" for Sabbath-breaking by traveling with loaded horses to Sharrendo," 
on the information of John and William Dewitt. 

Benjamin Borden (probably Benjamin, Jr.,) next appears as a peace- 
able citizen, or rather "subject of the King," in fear of his life. On 
February 26, i74i,he "swore the peace against George Moffett, making 
oath that " he goes in danger of his life, or some bodily hurt, by the 
said George Moffett." The latter appeared in court, and was regularly 
"bound over," his securities being James Cathrey and John Christian. 
This can hardly be the prominent citizen of Augusta, know as Colonel 
George Moffett, who died in 181 1, aged seventy-six years, and who was 
therefore only six years old in 1741. 

We now come to the mention of the first preacher of the Gospel who 
lived in Augusta : 

February 26, 1741, "John. Craig, a Presbyterian minister, in open 
Court took the oaths appointed by act of Parliament to be taken instead 
of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy and the oath of abjuration, 
and subscribed the Test: which is ordered to be certified." 

William Beverley, on February 14, 1742, conveyed to Mr. Craig 335 
acres of land— no doubt the tract on Lewis's creek, where Mr. Craig 
lived, afterwards owned by Benjamin T. Reid and now (1SS7) by the 
heirs of Robert S. Harnsberger. 

James Patton brought sundry suits in 1741, and from that time till 
1746, he and Beverley often appeared in court as litigants. 

William Thompson qualified as administrator of Joiin Campbell in 
1741, John Lewis security. The decedent was the ancestor of Colonel 
Arthur Campbell, General William Campbell and many others. 

A new "Commission of the Peace" was issued by the Governor in 
the fall of 1741, and on the 3d of November the Justices were sworn in. 
Among them were John Lewis, James Patton, and John Buchanan, all 
of whom sat in court that day. 


William Beverley qualified as County Lieutenant of Orange and also 
of Augusta, November 3, 1741. 

Under date of November 27, 1741, we find some items of general in- 
terest, viz : 

The Grand Jury presented "Jonathan Gibson of the Parish of St. 
Thomas, Gent., for not frequenting his parish church for the space of 
two months last past, on ye information of the Rev. Richard Hartswell." 
Mr. Gibson immediately appeared in court, confessed judgment, and 
" it was considered by the court that he pay the church wardens of St. 
Thomas parish ten shillings current money, or one hundred pounds of 
tobacco." There were two or more parishes in Orange county at that 
time. In one of these (St. Mark's) Augusta was included till 1745- St. 
Thomas's parish was mainly in what is now Madison county. 

On the same day, and also on the information of Mr. Hartswell, the 
following presentments were made : Richard Cross, James Picket and 
Thomas Wood, for not frequenting their parish church ; and Tully 
Joices, Bartholomew Baker and Jonathan Henning, " for swearing an 
oath, each, on the 23d of this instant, November, 1741." 

" Thereupon, on the information of Tully Joices, the jury presented 
the Rev. Richard Hartswell, of ye parish of St. Thomas, for being drunk 
on the 23d instant " — the day the swearing was done. This was evi- 
dently a spiteful proceeding on Tully's part. What came of the pre- 
sentment we failed to discover. 

Bishop Meade could not ascertain the name of the first minister of 
St. Thomas parish. On page 85, Vol. II, he says : " At that time " [1740] 
"an old Scotch minister of the Episcopal Church, whose name I have 
not been able to ascertain, but who, it seems, was fond of good cheer 
and a game of cards, officiated regularly at the church." Mr. Hartswell 
was doubtless the person referred to. 

James Patton qualified as "Colonel of Augusta County," May 27, 1742. 

On June 24, 1742, John Buchanan, John Smith, Samuel Gay, James 
Cathrey and John Christian qualified as captains of militia ; and John 
Moffett and William Evans as lieutenants. On the same day the fol- 
lowing constables were appointed, viz : John Steavenson, Thomas Turk, 
James Allen, Patrick Martin, John Gay and James Cole. 

Many deeds executed by Beverley and Borden, respectively, were 
admitted to record in the latter part of 1742, and the number of suits 
had greatly increased. 

On the 27th of November, 1742, the "inhabitants of Borden's Tract " 
petitioned for a road to Wood's Gap, and the Court ordered that the 
road be "cleared from James Young's through Timber Grove." 

A new " Commission of the Peace " was issued in November, 1742, 
and still another in May, 1743, in both of which Colonels Lewis and Pat- 
ton were included. 

At November Court, 1742, several Indians, arrested " for terrifying one 
Lawrence Strother and on suspicion of stealing hogs," were ordered 
into custody, their guns to be taken from them " till they are ready to 


depart out of the county, they having declared their intention to depart 
out of this colony within a week." 

On February 26, 1743, John Pendergrass, for not attending his 
parish church, was fined ten shillings, or one hundred pounds of tobacco, 
payable to the churchwardens. In the Valley nothing of this kind was 
done during the time of the religious establishment. The settlers of 
the Valley, coming in as Dissenters, had ample "toleration"; but in 
other parts of the colony, people claimed as belonging to the Established 
Church, and forsaking its services, were subjected to the sort of disci- 
pline leferred to. 

In 1743, Beverley prosecuted suits against James Bell, Patrick Camp- 
bell and George Robertson, of Augusta. 

On the 23d of February, 1744, James Patton qualified as collector of 
duties "in that part of Orange called Augusta." 

On the same day, Peter Scholl and others living on Smith's creek 
(now Rockingham) petitioned the Court, setting forth that they were 
required to work on a road thirty miles distant from their plantations, 
and praying for a new road nearer home. Evidently there was no road 
within thirty miles of Peter SchoH's dwelling. That, however, did not 
trouble him and his neighbors so much as the fact that they had to go 
so far to work, which was a hardship. The petition was granted 

Peter Scholl was one of the first justices of Augusta county in 1745. 
A man of the same name, and probably the same person, was living in 
Kentucky, in 1776, intimately associated with Daniel Boone. He is 
spoken of as Boone's nephew in-law. (See Collins's History of Ken- 

May 24, 1744, Jane Breckenridge, widow of Alexander Breckenridge, 
in open court relinquished her right to administer on the estate of her 
deceased husband, in favor of her son, George, who entered into bond, 
etc. Think of the venerable matron having to travel from her home 
near Staunton to Orange Courthouse for such a purpose ! The writer of 
these notes is naturally indignant, as Mrs. Breckenridge was his great- 
great-great-grand- mother. 

James Trimble was appointed constable in place of James Anderson, 
February 28, 1744. This was probably the James Trimble who became 
deputy surveyor of Augusta in December, 1745. 

At last we find a movement for a road through the Valley. On Feb- 
ruary 24, 1745, James Patton and John Buchanan reported that they had 
viewed the way from the Frederick county line "through that part of 
the county called Augusta, according to the order made last March," 
(which the writer failed to see) and the court ordered "that the said 
way be established a public road." 

The last order of Orange Court in reference to Augusta, or her 
people, was entered at November term, 1745 when Augusta's part of 
the cost of running the line between the two counties was fixed at ^32 
5S. 9d. 



For an account of the Rev. John Craig see page 20. 

In reference to Mr. Craig's personal history we have Httle to add ; but 
that enthusiastic antiquarian, Major J. M. McCue, having brought to 
light a record book kept by the pioneer minister for nine years, we find 
in it sundry items of more or less interest. 

The title of the book, as written by the minister himself, is as follows : 
"A record of the names of the children baptized by the Rev. John 
Craig, both in his own and in neighboring congregations, where God in 
His Providence ordered his labors." It, however, embraces other 
things besides the record of baptisms. The writer was too busy to 
think of style, and some of the entries are the more interesting because 
of their quaintness and crudity. 

The first child baptized in the county by Mr. Craig was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Jeremiah Williams, October 5, 1740. On October 26th, 
Samuel, son of William Logan, was baptized; and on the 2Sth, Mary, 
daughter of John Preston. Jean, daughter of Robert McClanahan, was 
baptized December 8, 1740, and this child, on growing up, became the 
wife of Alexander St. Clair, who is often mentioned in the Annals. 

James Bell's twins, William and James, were baptized December 12, 
1740. They were of the Long Glade family. William was killed in 
battle during the Revolutionary War. 

At the close of the first year, Mr. Craig writes: "The year being 
ended, the whole number baptized by me is one hundred and thirty- 
three : sixty-nine males and sixty-four females. Glory to God who is 
daily adding members to His visible church ! " 

It appears from Mr. Craig's record, as well as elsewhere, that there 
was a low state of morals amongst the white servants brought into the 
county before the Revolution. This is not to be wondered at, as many 
of such persons were criminals brought over under sentence of transpor- 
tation. But good people appear to have sought to rear the children of 
the convicts under religious influences. On January 20, 1742, " Mr. 
James Patton stood sponsor for a child baptized, named Henry, born in 
his house of a convict servant, a base person ; could not be brought to 
tell who was the father, notwithstanding all means used." 

Robert, son of Robert Young, was baptized January 22, 1742, and Mr. 
Craig notes that he was "born with teeth." 

William Johnston's son, Zachariah, was baptized September 26, 1742, 
and his son, Joseph, April 21, 1745 (see page 200J. 

In the second year the number of baptisms was eighty-two, and the 
record is followed by another ascription of praise to God. 

Under date of December 19, 1742, we find: "This day the news of 
the Indian rebellion and the death of our friends by their hands, came 


to our ears." The allusion is to the massacre of John McDowell and 
his companions in the Forks of James river (see pages 31, 32). There 
was, however, no Indian rebellion. A party of Indians returning from 
Williamsburg, under some sudden impulse or possibly provocation, 
fired upon the whites, and then, frightened at their act, ran away as 
fast as they could. 

David Logan's child, Benjamin, was baptized by Mr. Craig, May 3, 
1743. This child became the distinguished General Logan of Kentucky. 
(See elsewhere in this Supplement). 

On the 26th June, 1743, several children were baptized at North 
Mountain Meeting-house, and on the 30th, eight at South Mountain 
Meeting-house. The latter place may have been the predecessor of 
Tinkling Spring, or it may have been in the present county of Rock- 
bridge. The names of the children baptized there were Hays, Greenlee, 
Dunlap, Crawford, Breckenridge, etc. 

The child of a woman " lately from Ireland," bound to John Pickens, 
was baptized December 10, 1743. ^^^s. Eleanor Pickens stood sponsor, 
her husband being abroad. From 1740 to 1749, inclusive, various chil- 
dren of Israel, John and Gabriel Pickens were baptized. (See page 28). 

James Robertson's son, Alexander, was baptized January 10, 1744. 

On the 15th of January, 1744, David Campbells child, Arthur, was 
baptized. This was the widely known and distinguished Colonel 
Arthur Campbell (See page 98). 

James Trimble's son, John, was baptized March 18, 1744, and James 
Robertson's son, George, April 24, 1744. (See "The Trimbles " and 
" The Robertsons "). 

Mr. Craig pursued his calling wherever he went. Lender date of June 
I, 1744, he says : " Being at Synod " [of Philadelphia] " I baptized three 
children in Pennsylvania." 

Elizabeth Herison, " an adult person," was baptized July 27, 1744, and 
the following children at the dates mentioned : John Pickens's son, Israel, 
October i, 1744; Thomas Stuart's son, Archibald, and Edward Hall's 
daughter. Jennet, February 12, 1745; John Crawford's son, William, 
March 21, 1745; and David Logan's son, Hugh, March 24, 1745. 

William Renix was baptized June 2, 1745, and his brother, Joshua, 
in October, 1746. These were children of Robert Renix, who was killed 
by Indians in 1761, and his wife and children carried ofif. (See page 
107). William returned from captivity with his mother in 1767. Joshua 
remained with the Indians, and became a chief of the Miamis. 

Next we have the date of the first meeting at Tinkling Spring. After 
recording the baptism of Samuel Davison's child, Jesse, April 14, 1745, 
Mr. Craig says, in words expressive of his dissatisfaction with the place 
and the people : "This being the first day we meet at the contentious 
meeting-house about half built-'T. S." 

The " contention," to which Colonel Patton was a partv (see page 44), 
was then vexing Mr. Craig's soul. He mentions, however, June 9, 1745, 
"This day Colonel Patton appeared at meeting." 


On September i, 1745, Charles Campbell's son, William, was baptized. 
This child became the celebrated General William Campbell, of King's 
Mountain fame, the maternal grandfather of William C. Preston, of 
South Carolina. (See " The Campbell's.") 

February 26, 1746. was "a fast day appointed by the Governor upon 
ye account of ye civil war." The war referred to was doubtless the re- 
bellion in Great Britain stirred up by Charles Edward, son of the Pre- 
tender to the British throne, which began in 1745, and was ended by 
the battle of Culloden, April 16, 1746. 

At North Mountain Meeting-house, June i, 1746, among the children 
baptized were John Trimble's son, James, and Alexander Crawford's 
son, William. It is an interesting c<-)incidence that John Trimble and 
Ale.xander Crawford were both murdered by Indians in October, 1764, 
and probably on the same day, as related elsewhere. John Trimble's 
son, James, mentioned above, probably died in childhood, and another 
child called by the same name, born in 1756, became Captain James 

John Madison, the first clerk of the County Court of Augusta county, 
and father of Bishop Madison, was no doubt a member of the Church 
of England ; but, no rector having been appointed for Augusta parish, 
his son Thomas was baptized by Mr. Craig in October, 1746. 

David Stuart and Abigal Herrison, "adult persons," were "bap- 
tized, after profession of faith and obedience," January 21, 1747. 

Thomas Stuart's child. Jennet, was baptized February 22, 1747. This 
was probably the " Miss Jenny Stuart," a very old maiden lady, who 
was residing in Staunton within the recollection of persons still living. 

Mr. Craig's record shows that there were repeated lapses from the 
path of virtue, and not alone by the class of "convict servants." It 
would not be to edification to set these matters forth in detail. The 
civil magistrates were rigid in the enforcement of laws against immor- 
ality, and the minister of religion faithfully performed his duty in the 
premises as he understood it. "Public satisfaction" was required of 
delinquents before they were allowed to have their children baptized. 

The first rector of Augusta parish was the Rev. John HindmaUj who 
was appointed Aprils, 1747. (Seepage 34.) W^e have no account of 
him before that date. But he seems to have been a Dissenter and an 
old acquaintance of Mr. Craig, who mentions him curtly, April 5, 1747, 
as follows: "This day John Hindman attend, having turned his coat 
and now appears in the quality of a Church of England parson." 

Robert McClanahan's son, Robert, was baptized April 19, 1747. He 
became Dr. Robert McClanahan, married a daughter of Thomas Lewis, 
removed (after 1770) to the part of Botetourt now Greenbrier, was cap- 
tain in the Botetourt regmient under Colonel Fleming in 1774, and killed 
at the battle of Point Pleasant. 

John Tate's child, Eleanor, was baptized at North Mountain Meeting 
house, November 5, 1747 ; and Joseph Bell's child, Mary, February 21, 


Andrew Lewis's son, Samuel, was baptized September 15, 1748, and 
became a Lieutenant Colonel in the Revolutionary War. 

James Crawford's son, Alexander, and Patrick Crawford's daughter, 
Martha, were baptized in November, 1748. 

Robert McCIanahan's child, William, was baptized January 10, 1749. 
He was the father of Colonel Elisha McClanahan, of Roanoke. 

On January 22, 1749, Mr. Craig makes the following entry : "This the 
first day we meet in and preach in Augusta meeting-house." It is gen- 
erally supposed that this refers to the stone meeting-house which is still 
standing and used by the congregation. We are not sure of that, how- 
ever; the entry mav refer to a log building which preceded the stone 

During the year 1749, besides his regular preaching places, Augusta 
and Tinkling Spring, Mr. Craig administered baptism at North Moun- 
tain, South Mountain, "Timber Grove," North River, near Great Lick, 
Calf Pasture and Cow Pasture. 

The last entry in the book is dated September 28, 1749. During the 
nine preceding years the number of baptisms was 883,-463 males and 
420 females. Mr. Craig could not say with the Apostle Paul that he was 
sent "not to baptize, but to preach the gospel," although he too, no 
doubt, preached whenever and wherever he could. 

According to Mr. Craig's account of himself, he married, June 11, 
1744, "a young gentlewoman of a good family and character, born and 
brought up in the same neighborhood where I was born, daughter of 
Mr. George Russel, by whom I had ninechildren." The first, third and 
fifth children died young, and another must have died after the narrative 
was written, as we can learn of only five of his children who came to 

His only son was named George. He married a Miss Kennerly, and 
removed to Kanawha. The daughters of Mr. Craig were — 

I. Patience, wife of William Hamilton. This couple had three sons 
and five daughters, viz. : 

1. John C. Hamilton, married Sally Craig — no relation. The late 
William and John Hamilton, of Christian's creek, were sons of John 
and Sally. 

2. Hugh Hamilton, married Betsy, daughter of Samuel Clark, of 
Staunton. He went to Missouri and died there. His son. Dr. William 
Hamilton, was long an assistant physician at the Western Lunatic 

3. Andrew Hamilton, married Nancy Craig — no relation. 

IL Mary Craig, daughter of the Rev. John Craig, married Charles 
Baskin, who was baptized by Mr. Craig, March 15, 1741. Captain Baskin, 
as he was called, was badly wounded at the battle of Guilford, in 1781. 
He had two children. Captain John C. Baskin, of the war of 1812, and a 
daughter, who married William Grimes. 

in. Joanna Craig, married John Hamilton, a brother of William, hus- 
band of Patience. No children. 


IV. The name of Mr. Craig's fourth daughter is not known. She 
married an Atwater, and had two children : John, who died in service 
during the war of 1812, and Hannah, who married George Craig, of 
Putnam county. 


Gabriel Jones was the son of John and Elizabeth Jones, of the county 
of Montgomery, North Wales. At what date this couple came to 
America is not known. They settled at Williamsburg, Virginia, and on 
the i.^th of August, 1721, their first child, a daughter named Elizabeth, 
was born in William and Mary College. Nearly three years later, on 
May 17, 1724, Gabriel was born, about three miles from Williamsburg. 
Another son, named John, was born at the same place, June 12, 1725. 

John Jones, the father, apppears to have died before the year 1727. 
Mrs. Jones and her children were in England at the beginning of that 
year, and on February 20th her daughter was baptized at St. Giles-in- 
the-Fields, London, as shown by the parish record. 

In April, 1732, Gabriel was admitted as a scholar of the " Blue Coat 
School," Christ's Hospital, London, on the presentation of Mr. Thomas 
Sandford. There he remained seven years. Under date of April 12, 
1739. the following entry appears on the records of the school : 

" Gabriel Jones is this day taken and discharged from the charges of 
this Hospital forever, by Elizabeth Jones, his mother, and by Mr. John 
Houghton, of Lyon's Inn, in the county of Middlesex, Solicitor in the 
High Court of Chancery, with whom he is to serve six years." 

This brings his history up to 1745, in which year his mother died. 
Having served out his term of apprenticeship, the young lawyer, then 
twenty-one years of age, was no doubt " admitted to the bar." The 
family were of " gentle blood," but in reduced circumstances. One of 
Mr. Jones's descendants preserves some old coin, on the paper wrap- 
ping of which is written in his own hand : "This is the patrimony I re- 
ceived from my mother. From my father I received nothing." As 
early as 1750 he used the same crest and coat-of-arms as Sir William 
Jones, indicating a relationship with that celebrated man. 

Gabriel Jones found means to return to America soon after he at- 
tained his majority and was "free of his indentures." He located first 
in Frederick county, and on March i, 1747, bought a tract of land near 
Kernstown, where he lived for a time. He resided in Frederick in 
April, 1746, when he was appointed prosecuting attorney for Augusta, 
and was then only twenty-two years old. 

On the i6th of October, 1749, Mr. Jones married Margaret Morton^ 
widow of George Morton, and daughter of William Strother, of King 
George county. Mrs. Jones was born in 1726, and died in i822,in her 


ninety-seventh year. She is described as a lady of eminent Christian 

A deed of Christopher Francisco, of Pennsylvania, to Gabriel Jones, 
of the county of Frederick, dated August 8, 1751, is recorded in the 
clerk's office of Augusta county. The land conveyed consisted of 244 
acres, being a part of 5,000 acres granted by patent to Jacob Stover, lying 
on the north side of " Shenandore River," in the parish and county of 
Augusta, and " opposite to the lower end of the Great Island." This was 
the farm below the present village of Port Republic, upon which Mr. 
Jones lived many years, and where he died. He was still a resident of 
Frederick, however, on the 24th of August, 1753, when Alexander Richie 
convej'ed to him 400 acres of land on the north side of James River in the 
present county of Botetourt. He sold his Frederick property, on which 
he had lived, December 3, 1753, and probably before the close of that 
year removed to his farm on the Shenandoah, in Augusta. 

If not the first lawyer who resided in the Valley, Mr. Jones was the 
first member of that profession who lived in Augusta. He was actively 
engaged in practice for many years. As we have seen (pages 35, 36), he 
also represented Augusta in the House of Burgesses in 1757, 1758 and 
1771. He was considered a man of great ability and unbending integrity. 
His only fault, or the only one which tradition tells of, was an extremely 
irritable temper, which, when aroused, expressed itself in the strongest 
terms he could command, mingled with no little profanity. Having a 
scorn of all dishonesty and meanness, he did not spare a miscreant by 
tongue or pen. Two of his letters are before us. In one he describes 
a certain person, whose trickery he was exposing, as " one of the greatest 
villains," etc., etc. The other is dated July 28, 17S2, and was written, 
when he was sick, to his son — indeed, from his own account he was 
" very low " — but he summoned strength enough to denounce a man 
about whom he wrote as a " scoundrel " and "infamous rascal." Yet 
at tne close of this letter he expressed the tenderest affection for his 
son's wife. 

When Rockingham was constituted, in 1777, Mr. Jones became a citi- 
zen of that county, and was immediately appointed prosecuting attorney. 
He was a member of the State Convention of 1788, having his brother- 
in-law, Thomas Lewis, as his colleague, both of them being zealous 
advocates of the adoption of the Federal Constitution. Mr. Lewis 
was a popular man while Mr. Jones was not, and it is related that in a 
public speech before the election, the latter declined the support of 
" the rascals " who, he understood, proposed to vote for him because of 
his association with the former. Archibald Stuart, of Augusta, went to 
Rockingham to electioneer for Mr. Jones, who afterwards presented to 
him a chaise in which to bring home his wife. 

He continued to practice law, and the road he traveled, from his resi- 
dence to the county seat of Rockingham, is still called "The Lawyer's 
Road." An anecdote related of him, whether true or false, illustrates 
the awe he inspired in his latter days. It is said that on one occasion, 


during the trial of a cause before the County Justices of Rockingham, 
or Shenandoah, he had Alexander Hugh Holmes, afterwards the Judge, 
as his adversary at the bar. Holmes was mischievous and witty, and 
the old gentleman became angry and profane. The court abstained 
from interfering as long as possible, but finally put their heads together 
to confer about the matter. After due consideration, the Presiding 
Justice announced as the judgment of the court that they would send 
Lawyer Holmes to jail if he did not quit making Lawyer Jones swear 

Mr. Jones died in October, 1806. Having always pictured him as a 
giant in size and strength, we were surprised to learn that he was a 
man of small stature. His portrait represents him in the old style of 
dress, with a large wig, and a shade over his right eye. Some of his 
descendants suppose that he lost his eye during his early life, and others 
attribute the loss to an accident during his latter years. In the spring 
of 1887, a window, in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Jones, was inserted by 
their descendants in a new Protestant Episcopal church, which stands 
near their former residence. 

The children of Gabriel Jones were three daughters and one son, 
besides one that died in infancy. Margaret Morton, the oldest daughter, 
married Colonel John Harvie, for some time a member of Congress and 
for many years Register of the Land Office of Virginia. The descend- 
ants of Colonel and Mrs. Harvie are very numerous, and many of them 
have been highly distinguished. Another daughter married John Lewis, 
of Fredericksburg, a lawyer, whose brother married a sister of General 
Washington ; and the third married Mr. Hawkins, of Kentucky. 

William Strother Jones, the only son of Gabriel Jones, was born 
March 21, 1756. In the catalogue of students of William and Mary 
College we find the name of Strother Jones, son of Gabriel Jones, of 
Augusta, in 1767. His wife was Fanny Thornton, of Fredericksburg, 
who died about the year 1790. He was a captain in the Continental 
army during the Revolution, and subsequently a colonel of militia. It 
is said that he was an accomplished gentleman, but inherited his 
father's temper. At one time during the war he was ordered under 
arrest for " beating a sentry while on post and a corporal on guard." 

William Strother Jones, Jr., was the only son of the former. He was 
born October 7, 1783, lived in Frederick county, married, first Ann 
Maria Marshall, a niece of Chief-Justice Marshall, and, second, Ann 
Cary Randolph, and died July 31, 1845. 

The children of the last-named William Strother Jones were, Mrs. F. 
L. Barton, of Winchester ; Wm. Strother Jones, now of New York; 
Captain James F. Jones, who was murdered in 1866 ; Francis B. Jones, 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Virginia regiment, who was killed at 
Malvern Hill ; and R. B. Jones. 

Robert T. Barton, of Winchester, to whom we are indebted for much 
of the foregoing information, is a great-greatgrandson of Gabriel Jones. 

John Jones, the brother of Gabriel Jones, had a son named John 


Gabriel, who was born June 6, 1752, and while still a very young man 
went to Kentucky. In June, 1776, George Rogers Clark and John 
Gabriel Jones were chosen by a popular meeting at Harrodsburg mem- 
bers of the General Assembly of Virginia. Before they arrived here 
the Legislature had adjourned, and Jones directed his steps to the set- 
tlements on the Holston, leaving Clark to proceed to Richmond. The 
latter obtained from the council an order for the transportation to Pitts- 
burg of 500 pounds of gunpowder for the use of the people of Kentucky. 
At the Fall session of the Legislature the two agents of Kentucky were 
in attendance. They were not received as members, but through their 
influence the county of Kentucky was constituted. Clark and Jones 
conveyed the powder from Pittsburg down the Ohio river to a point 
eleven miles above the present town of Maysville, and concealed it 
there. In December following, Colonel John Todd and a party of men, 
under the guidance of Jones, went for the powder; but on Christmas 
day, when near the Lower Blue Lick, they were attacked by Indians. 
Jones and several others were killed and the expedition was aban- 
doned. In January, 1777, however. Colonel Harrod succeeded in finding 
the powder and conveying it to Harrodsburg. 

John Jones, the brother of Gabriel, was not the rector of Augusta 
parish in colonial times. Some of the descendants of Gabriel Jones 
state that as far as they know he had no brother whatever. Others not 
only give the brother's name, but the date of his birth. 

Mrs. Agatha Towles, a grand-daughter of Colonel John Lewis, in a 
brief memoir, written by her in 1837, states that Colonel Lewis pre- 
ceded his family to America, and lived in Pennsylvania and Virginia 
three years before their arrival. A brother of his went from Wales to 
Portugal, and from thence probably to America, but Colonel Lewis came 
directly from Ireland. After his rencounter with " the Irish Lord," he 
took refuge in a house on the banks of the Boyne, and as soon as a ship 
was ready to sail, embarked for America. Mrs. Lewis and her children 
came over in a vessel with three hundred passengers, all Presbyterians, 
and landed on the Delaware river, after a voyage of three months. 
Mrs. Towles gives the names of Colonel Lewis's children, four sons and 
two daughters, but says nothing of a son named Samuel. She states 
that her uncle, Andrew, and her father, William Lewis, were at Brad- 
dock's Defeat, and that the latter was wounded on that occasion. It is 
hardly probable that she was mistaken in regard to her father, but we 
still think Andrew Lewis was not with Braddock. (.See page 64.) An- 
drew Lewis having been taken prisoner at Grant's defeat, in 1758, (see 
page 105) was detained at Quebec for three years, says Mrs. Towles. 
She describeb her father as a man of eminent piety. 



John Campbell came from Ireland to America in 1726, with five or 
six grown sons and several daughters, and settled first in Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania. Six or eight years afterwards he removed to 
that part of Orange county, Virginia, which, in 1738, became Augusta 
county, where many of his numerous descendants lived for many years. 

Three of John Campbell's sons came with him to Augusta, viz : Pat- 
rick, Robert and David. 

I. Patrick Campbell, who died in Augusta, had at least two sons — 
Charles and Patrick. 

1. Charles Campbell, son of Patrick, died in Augusta in 1767. He 
was the father of General William Campbell, of King's Mountain fame. 
In his will, dated August 4, 1761, proved in court and admitted to re- 
cord March 17, 1767, he speaks of himself as a resident of Beverley's 
Manor. He appointed his wife, Margaret, sole executrix, provided for 
her support, left 1,000 acres of land on the Holston to his son William, 
and lands in the same section to his daughters. The inventory of the 
estate shows a larger amount of personal property than was common 
at that time. 

William Campbell, only son of Charles, was born in 1745. In a short 
time after his father's death, the whole family moved to the Holston, 
now Washington county, then in Augusta. The oldest daughter, Eliza- 
beth, married John Taylor, and from her the Taylors of Botetourt and 
Montgomery are descended; the second, Jane, married Thomas Tate I 
the third, Margaret, married Colonel Arthur Campbell, her second 
cousin; and the fourth, Ann, married Richard Boston. 

2. Patrick Campbell, second son of Patrick and brother of Charles, 
went to the southern part of Kentucky, and left many descendants. 

II. Robert Campbell, son of John and brother of Patrick (I), was one 
of the first Justices of the Peace appointed for Augusta county, in 1745. 
He died in 1768, without leaving a will. His descendants, if any, are 
not mentioned by Governor David Campbell in his account of the 
family. (See Foote's Sketches, 2d series, page 117). 

III. David Campbell, son of John and brother of Patrick (I) and 
Robert (II), married, in Augusta, Mary Hamilton, and had seven sons 
and six daughters, all of whom, except a son who died young, emi- 
grated to the Holston. The sons were John, Arthur, James, William, 
David, Robert and Patrick ; and the daughters, Margaret, Mary, Martha, 
Sarah, Ann, and sixth riot named. 

I. John Campbell, the oldest son of David, was born in 1741, and 
received a good English education. He accompanied Dr. Thomas 
Walker in his exploration in 1765, and purchased for his father a tract 
of land called the "Royal Oak," near the head waters of the Holston. 
A year or two afterwards, he and his brother Arthur, and their sister 


Margaret, moved to that place and made improvements. About 1771, 
the parents and the other children removed to the same place. 

John Campbell was a Lieutenant in William CaniDbell's company, 
Colonel Christian's regiment, in 1774, which arrived at Point Pleasant too 
late for the battle of October loth. In July, 1776, he was second in 
command at the battle of the Long Island Flats of Holston, which 
resulted in a signal victory over the Indians. In October of the same 
year he commanded a company under Colonel Christian in his expedi- 
tion against the Cherokee towns (see page 142,) and up to 1781 was 
almost constantly in military service. Hie was appointed clerk of 
Washington County Court in 1778, and held the office till 1824. His 
death occurred in 1825. He was the father of Governor David Camp- 

Edward Campbell, another son of John Campbell, the younger, and 
brother of Governor Campbell, was a lawyer, and father of the late 
Judge John A. Campbell and others, of Abingdon. A sister of David 
and Edward married James Cummings, son of the Rev. Charles Cum- 
mings (see pages 50 and 52,) and was the mother of Colonel Arthur 
Campbell Cummings, of Abingdon. 

2. Arthur Campbell, second son of David, (see page 98) died about 
181 1, in his si.xty-ninth year. 

3. James Campbell, third son, lost his eye-sight from small-po.K, and 
died at fifty years of age. 

4. William Campbell died in his youth before the family moved to 
the Holston. 

5. David Campbell, fifth son of David, was a lawyer and removed to 
Tenne'^see. He was first the Federal Judge in the Territory, and then 
one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the State. His death 
occurred in 1812, in the sixty-second year of his age. He had been 
appointed F^ederal Judge of the Territory which afterwards formed the 
State of Alabama, but died before he removed his family to the new 

6. Robert Campbell, sixth son of David, was nineteen years old when he 
went with his brother to the Holston. He was a volunteer in the expe- 
dition of 1774, and a member of his brother John's company at the Long 
Island Flats, in 1776. In October, 1776, he was in Christian's campaign, 
and in 1780 was an ensign under Colonel William Campbell at King's 
Mountain. In December, 1780, he served under Colonel Arthur Camp- 
bell, his brother, against the Cherokees. After acting as a magistrate in 
Washington County for more than thirty years, he removed to the 
vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, where he died in 1831. 

7. Patrick Campbell, the youngest son of David, was a volunteer at 
King's Mountain. He remained with his father and inherited the home- 
stead. In his old age he removed to Williamson County, Tennessee, 
and died when about eighty years old. 

" The daughters of David and Mary Campbell — 

I. Margaret married the David Campbell who erected a block-house 


in Tennessee, widely known as "Campbell's Station." She was con- 
spicuous for many excellent traits of character. Her death occurred 
in 1799, at the age of fifty-one. 

2. Mary married William Lockhart before the family removed from 

3. Ann married Archibald Roane, who was first a teacher at Liberty 
Hall Academy, Rockbridge, and successively Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Tennessee, Governor of the State, and Judge again. She died 
at Nashville in 1831, about seventy-one years of age. 

Several other families of Campbells, not related as far as known to 
those just mentioned, were amongst the early settlers of Augusta. One 
of these was represented for many years by Dr. Samuel Campbell, of 
Le.xington, uncle of Charles Campbell, the historian ; and another by 
the late Rev. William G. Campbell and his nephew. Professor John L. 
Campbell, of Washington and Lee University. 


Benjamin Borden, Sr., a native of New Jersey, obtained from Gov- 
ernor Gooch a patent, dated October 3, 1734, for a tract of land in 
Frederick county, which was called " Borden's Manor." He was 
promised, also, one hundred thousand acres on the waters of James 
River, west of the Blue Ridge, as soon as he should locate a hundred 
settlers on the tract. As stated on page 16, Ephraim McDowell and his 
family were the first people who settled there, in 1737. They located 
on Timber Ridge, originally called "Timber Grove," being attracted 
by the forest trees on the ridge, which were scarce elsewhere in the 
region. Borden offered a tract of one hundred acres to any one who 
should build a cabin on it, with the privilege of purchasing more at 
fifty shillings per hundred acres. Each cabin secured to him one thous- 
and acres. Mrs. Mary Greenlee related in her deposition, referred to 
on page 16, that an Irish girl, named Peggy MillhoUen, a servant of 
James Bell, dressed herself in men's clothes and secured five or six 
cabin rights. John Patterson, who was employed to count the cabins, 
was surprised to find so many people named MillhoUen, but the trick 
was not discovered till after the return was made. Among the settlers 
in "Borden's Grant" were William McCausland, William Sawyers, 
Robert Campbell, Samuel Woods, John Mathews (father of Sampson and 
George), Richard Woods. John Hays and his son, Charles, and Samuel 
Walker. Borden obtained his patent November 8, 1739. He died in 
the latter part of 1743, in Frederick, leaving three sons, Benjamin, John 
and Joseph, and several daughters. The next spring his son Benjamin 
appeared in Rockbridge (as it is now) with authority under his father's 


will to adjust all matters with the settlers on the grant. He had, how- 
ever, been in the settlement before his father's death. 

Mrs. Greenlee says Benjamin Borden, Jr., was "altogether illiterate," 
and did not make a good impression on his first arrival, but he proved 
to be an upright man, and won the confidence of the people. The 
saying: " As good as Ben. Borden's bill," passed into a proverb. He 
married Mrs. Magdalene McDowell (originally a Miss Woods, of Rock- 
fish), widow of John McDowell, who was killed by Indians in Decem- 
ber, 1742, (see page 31,) and by her had two daughters, Martha and 
Hannah. The former became the wife of Robert Harvey, the latter 
never married. 

Benjamin Borden, Jr., died of small-pox in 1753. His will was ad- 
mitted to record by the County Court of Augusta, November 21, 1753. 
The executors appointed were John Lyle, Archibald Alexander and 
testator's wife, but the first named declined to serve. His personal 
estate was large for the time. During her second widowhood Mrs. 
Magdalene Borden contracted a third marriage with Colonel John 

Joseph Borden, brother of Benjamin, Jr., was frequently in the settle- 
ment after the latter's death. In course of time he instituted the 
chancery suit of Borden vs. Bowyer, &c., out of which grew the cause 
of Peck vs. Borden, both of which have been pending in the courts of 
Augusta county for a hundred years, more or less. 

The children of John and Magdalene McDowell were two sons, 
Samuel and James, and a daughter, Martha, wife of Colonel George 
Moffett, of Augusta. 

For mention of Samuel McDowell, see pages 148, 179, 191. He had 
seven sons and four daughters. In 1783 he removed to Kentucky with 
his wife and nine younger children, leaving two married daughters in 
Virginia. One of these daughters was the wife of Andrew Reid, the 
first clerk of Rockbridge County Court, and father of the late Colonel 
Samuel McDowell Reid, of Lexington. The other married daughter, 
whose name was Sally, was the first wife of Caleb Wallace of Char- 
lotte county (subsequently of Botetourt), who was first a Presbyterian 
minister, then a lawyer, and finally a judge of the Supreme Court of 

Samuel McDowell was one of the three judges of the first Kentucky 
Court, and President of the Convention which framed the first Consti- 
tution of Kentucky. His son, Dr. Ephraim McDowell, studied medicine 
with Dr. Humphreys, in Staunton, completed his professional education 
in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was very eminent as a surgeon. Among 
the numerous descendants of Judge McDowell were General Irvine 
McDowell, of the United States Army, General Humphrey Marshall, 
and James G. Birney, the "Liberty" candidate for President of the 
United States in 1840 and 1844. 

James McDowell, son of John and Magdalene, had one son, also 


named James, the Colonel McDowell of 1812 (see pages 224, etc.), and 
father of the late Governor James McDowell. 

The wife of Judge Samuel McDowell was Mary McClung. Her 
brother, John, was the father of William McClung, who removed to 
Kentucky and became a judge of considerable distinction. He died in 
1815. His wife was a sister of Chief Justice Marshall, and his sons, 
Colonel Alexander K. McClung and the Rev. John A. McClung, D. D., 
were highly distinguished. A brother of Judge McClung, the late Mr. 
Joseph McClung, lived and died on Timber Ridge. 


The Rev. John Brown (see page 32) was a native of Ireland, educated 
at Princeton, New Jersey, and pastor of New Providence congregation 
for forty-four years. His residence was first near the village of Fair- 
field, and afterwards near the church, on the spot where the late John 
Withrow long resided. 

1. John Brown, the oldest son of the Rev. John Brown, was born at 
Staunton (probably at Spring Farm, where his maternal grandmother 
lived), September 12, 1757. He was sent to Princeton College, and 
when the American army retreated through the Jerseys, joined the 
troops, crossed the Delaware with them, and remained some time as a 
volunteer. He afterwards was a member of a Rockbridge company, 
and with it served under La Fayette. His education was completed 
at William and Mary College. The sketch of him in Collins's History 
of Kentucky (Volume II, page 252), says he " assisted the celebrated Dr. 
Waddell for two years as a teacher in his school, read law in the office 
of Mr. Jefferson, and removed to Kentucky in 17S2." After Kentucky 
became a State he was three times consecutively elected a United 
States Senator. He was also a member of the House of Represen- 
tatives one or more terms. In 1805 he retired to private life, and after 
that declined all overtures to take office. He died August 28, 1837, at 
Frankfort. His wife was a daughter of the Rev. John Mason, of New 
York, sister of the distinguished Rev. John M. Mason. 

The late Judge Mason Brown, of Frankfort, was a son of the Hon. 
John Brown. One of Judge Brown's sons was the late Benjamin Gratz 
Brown, of Missouri, the candidate for the Vice-Presidency of the United 
States on the " Greeley Ticket," in 1872. Another of his sons is Colo- 
nel John Mason Brown, of Louisville. 

2. James Brown, the second son of the Rev. John Brown, was distin- 
guished as a lawyer in Kentucky. His wife was a sister of Mrs. Henry 
Clay. Upon the acquisition of Louisiana, he removed to New Orleans, 


was associated with Livingston in compiling the civil code of that State, 
was several times elected to the United States Senate, and was subse- 
quently Minister to France. He died in Philadelphia, in 1836, without 

3. Dr. Samuel Brown, the third son, studied in Edinburgh, and for 
many years was a professor in Transylvania University. 

4. Dr. Preston W. Brown, the youngest son, studied his profession in 
Philadelphia, practiced in Kentucky, and died in 1826. 

The Rev. John Brown became pastor of New Providence in 1753, 
and continued such till 1796, when he followed his sons to Kentucky. 
He died at Frankfort in 1803, in the seventy-fifth year of his age, his 
wife having died in 1802 in her seventy-third year. 

Mr. Brown had two daughters — Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. Thomas 
B. Craighead, of Tennessee, son of the Rev. Alexander Craighead (see 
page 69), and Mary, wife of Dr. Alexander Humphreys. 

John Humphreys, whose wife was Margaret Carlisle, lived in the 
county of Armagh, Ireland. His oldest son, David Carlisle Humphreys, 
came to America in 1763, when he was about twenty-two years old, 
and lived for eight years in Pennsylvania. There he married Margaret 
Finley, who is the Mrs. Margaret Humphreys mentioned on page 176. 
In 1771 he removed to Augusta county, and purchased a farm near 
Greenville, where he died in 1826, aged eighty-five years. His children 
were three sons, John, Samuel and Aaron Finley, and five daughters 
who were the wives respectively of Samuel McCutchen, Samuel Black- 
wood, David Gilkeson, James S. Willson and Archibald Rhea. 

Dr. Alexander Humphreys was a brother of David C. Humphreys. 
He came to America some years later than David C. and lived first 
near New Providence Church. He afterwards removed to Staunton, 
where he practised his profession till his death, in 1802. His widow 
and children then removed to Frankfort, Kentucky. 


Mrs. Letitia Floyd, a daughter of Colonel William Preston and vvife 
of the first Governor Floyd, in the year 1843 wrote an account of the 
Preston family, for the perusal of which, in manuscript, we are indebted 
to Mr. Howe P. Cochran. Mrs. Floyd evidently wrote from her own 
recollection of family traditions, without verifying her statements by 
reference to authentic contemporary history, and is, therefore, incorrect 
in sundry particulars, especially in regard to dates. But she states much 
that is interesting, and, no doubt, true. Many of the facts related by 
her are given in the body of the Annals, and a few others will be men- 
tioned here. 


Colonel James Patton had four sisters, two of whom married " men of 
quality" in the old country. The youngest sister, Elizabeth, while 
crossing the river Shannon in a boat, had as a fellow-passenger a young 
man of striking appearance, who proved to be a ship carpenter named 
John Preston. This casual interview led to acquaintance and a run- 
away marriage. The young lady thus placed herself " out of the pale 
of her family." Her brother, James Patton, having afterwards retired 
from the sea and settled in America, induced Mr. and Mrs. Preston to 
emigrate also. Mrs. Floyd puts the date of their arrival in the Valley 
as 1735, and says John Preston died seven years afterwards at "Gib- 
son's old place, eight miles below Staunton." But it appears from the 
records of Augusta County Court that Ills death occurred in 1747, and 
if he lived only seven years after coming, he must have arrived in 1740 
with Alexander Breckenridge and many others, as is generally supposed 
to have been the fact. While living in Augusta, remote from the sea- 
board, John Preston employed himself as a cabinetmaker, constructing 
household furniture for himself and neighbors. 

William, only son of John Preston, was born in the town of Newton, 
Ireland, November 25, 1729. He received most of his education in 
America, from the Rev. John Craig. Mrs. Patton was a haughty 
woman, says Mrs. Floyd, and kept aloof from the Prestons. A silly 
prediction of an Irish woman that William Preston would get his 
uncle's fortune, so impressed her with dread of a marriage between 
the nephew and one of her daughters, that she allowed no inter- 
course between the young people. She died soon after the marriage 
of her daughters — one to a kinsman of hers named Thompson, and 
the other to John Buchanan Colonel Patton then induced his widowed 
sister to remove to Spring Farm, in the vicinity of .Staunton, and went 
to live with her. 

W^illiam Preston's first regular employment was posting the books of 
Staunton merchants and aiding his uncle in his extensive business He 
became deputy for Wallace Estill, when the latter was high sheriff of 
Augusta. He was also clerk of the vestry of Augusta parish and clerk 
of the County Court Martial. Step by step he rose to higher employ- 
ments. In 1766, he was the colleague of John Wilson in the House of 
Burgesses. His letters and official reports which have come down to 
us, show that he was a man of more culture than was common in his 
time and section of country. Mrs. Floyd says that Colonel Preston, 
Thomas Lewis and others employed Gabriel Jones to purchase libraries 
for them in London. 

As stated elsewhere, Lettice, the second daughter of Mrs. John Pres- 
ton, was the second wife of Major Robert Breckenridge. Major Breck- 
enridge's first wife was a Miss Poage, of Augusta, and by her he had 
two sons, Robert and Alexander. These sons, not living harmoniously 
with their step-mother, were sent to Hanover county to learn the car- 
penter's trade with Francis Smith, Colonel W^illiam Preston's brother 
in-law. They became skilful workmen, and were employed by Colonel 


Preston to build the dwelling at Smithfield. They served as soldiers 
during the Revolution, and finally settled in Kentucky. (See page 141.) 
Alexander Breckenridge married the widow of Colonel John Floyd, a 
daughter of Colonel John Buchanan and grand-daughter of Colonel 
James Patton. Thus, the first Governor Floyd, of Virginia, and James 
D. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, were half-brothers. 

Colonel Preston was taken ill at a regimental muster, June 28, 1783, 
and died the following night. He was five feet, eleven inches in height, 
inclined to corpulency, of ruddy complexion, with light hair and hazel 
eyes. His wife survived till June 18, 1823, having lived a widow forty 

Mrs. Floyd was personally acquainted with Mrs. Mary Ingles, and 
gives a detailed account of her adventures. She states that Mrs. Ingles 
gave birth to a female child three months after her capture, and not 
three days, as stated by Dr. Hale and repeated on page 74. In other 
respects her account is substantially the same as that given in the 
Annals. But a great-grand-daughter of Mrs. Ingles earnestly denies 
the correctness of the whole report in regard to the birth and desertion 
of an infant. She says " such a thing did happen " to Mrs. Rebecca 
Davidson, an acquaintance of Mrs. Ingles's, and that Mrs. Floyd fell into 
the error of attributing to the one what occurred to the other. Mrs. 
Charlton, the only surviving grand-child of Mrs. Ingles, was fourteen 
years old when her grandmother died, but never heard the story of the 
infant until it was mentioned by Mrs. Floyd. Mrs. Ingles died in 1813, 
aged eighty-four. 

We find in Mrs. Floyd's narrative a brief account of the assault by 
Indians on the house of David Cloyd, which is referred to on page 126. 
Colonel William Preston, who then lived at Greenfield, had gone to 
Staunton, in March, 1764, when one day, early in the morning, Mrs. 
Preston was startled by the report of two guns in quick succession in 
the direction of a neighbor's house half a mile distant. Presently 
Joseph Cloyd rode up on a plow-horse with the gearing on and related 
that Indians had killed his brotiier John, had shot at him (the powder 
burning his shirt), and having gone to the house had probably killed 
his mother. Mrs. Preston immediately sent a young man who lived at 
her house to notify the garrison of a small fort on Craig's Creek, and 
then despatched a white man and two negroes to Mr. Cloyd's. The 
latter found Mrs. Cloyd tomahawked in three places, but still alive and 
conscious. She told about the assault by the Indians, their getting 
drunk, ripping up the feather beds, and carrying off" the money. One 
of the Indians wiped the blood from her temples with a corn-cob, 
saying, " Poor old woman ! " She died the next morning. The sequel 
of the story, as far as known, is given on page 126. 


The Floyds.— It is stated on page 74 that Colonel John Buchanan's 
wife (a daughter of Colonel James Fatten) had only one child at the 
date of Colonel Patton's will. Another daugnter, named Jane, was born 
afterwards and became the wife of Colonel John Floyd and mother of 
the first Governor Floyd. 

The first Floyds in America were two brothers who came from 
Wales to Accomac county, Virginia. William Floyd, a son of one of 
these brothers, married Abadiah Davis, of Amherst county, who was 
of Indian descent. John Floyd, a son of this couple, was born about 
1750. At about eighteen years of age he married a Miss Burwell, who 
was fourteei; years old, and died in a few months. Ten years after- 
wards he married Jane Buchanan, a second cousin of Colonel William 
Preston. From 1772 to 1776 Colonel Preston was county surveyor of 
Fincastle county, which embraced all Kentucky. He appointed John 
Floyd one of his deputies and sent him to survey lands on the Ohio 
river, which led to the settlement of the latter in Kentucky. His son, 
John, was born near Louisville, April 24, 1783, came to Virginia when he 
was twenty-one years of age, served in the Legislature and Congress, 
was Governor from 1829 to 1834, and died in 1837, aged fifty-four. The 
late John B. Floyd, also Governor, etc., etc., was a son of the first Gov- 
ernor Floyd. Their home was in Washington county. 


General Benjamin Logan's parents were natives of Ireland, but 
married in Pennsylvania. Soon after their marriage they removed to 
Augusta county, and here, in 1743, their oldest child, Benjamin, was 
born. The Rev. John Craig's record shows that Benjamin, son of David 
Logan, was baptized May 3, 1743. When young Logan was fourteen 
years of age his father died, and according to the law of primogeniture 
then in force, he inherited all the real estate which had been acquired- 
Upon coming of age, however, he refused to appropriate the land to 
himself, and after providing a home for his mother and her younger 
children, went to the Holston. His wife was a Miss Montgomery. He 
was a sergeant in Colonel Henry Bouquet's e.xpedition in 1764 (see page 
124), and was with Dunmore in his expedition of 1774. He was one of 
the people of the Holston settlement who signed the "call" to the Rev. 
Charles Cummings to become their pastor, in 1773. (See page 52.) In 
1775 he went to Kentucky, with only two or three slaves, and established 
Logan's Fort, near the site of the present town of Stanford, Lincoln 
county. His family removed to Kentucky in 1776. In May, 1777, the 
fort was invested, for several weeks, by a hundred Indians. As the 
ammunition of the small garrison was becoming exhausted, Logan, with 


two companions, repaired for a supply to the Holston settlement and 
returned in ten days. In 1779 he was second in command of an expe- 
dition against the Indian town of Chillicothe, which terminated rather 
disastrously. He was in full march to reinforce tlie whites at the Blue 
Licks, in 1782, when that fatal battle occurred, but could only receive 
and protect the fugitives from the field. He was a member of the 
Kentucky Conventions of 1792 and 1799, and repeatedly a member of 
the State Legislature. Logan county, Kentucky, was called for him. 
(Collins's History of Kentucky, Volume II, page 482.) 

William Logan, oldest son of General Logan, born where Harrods- 
burg now stands, December 8, 1776, is said to have been the first white 
child born in Kentucky. He became a Judge of the Kentucky Court of 
Appeals and a Senator in the Congress of the United States His death 
occurred August 8, 1822. (Collins, Volume II, page 713.) 

To the Rev. Robert Logan, of Fort Worth, Texas, we are indebted 
for some further information in regard to his family. Mr. Logan thinks 
the ancestor who came to America was named James. He belonged to 
a Scotch family which had removed to Lurgan, in Ireland. LTpon com- 
ing to the Valley, he settled near New Providence church, in what is 
now Rockbridge county. The names of only two of his children are 
known — Benjamin and James. The former, after his father's death, on 
coming of age, settled his mother and her younger children on Kerr's 
Creek, and went himself to the Holston, as related. The family resided 
on Kerr's Creek in i763-'4, but, as far as known, none of them were 
killed or captured by the Indians in those years. 

James Logan remained with his mother. His wife was Hannah Irvin, 
the daughter of a Presbyterian minister, and he had eight sons and 
four daughters. 

John Logan, one of the sons of James and Hannah, married Rachel 
McPheeters, daughter of William McPheeters, and sister of the Rev. 
Dr. McPheeters. He lived near Greenville, Augusta county, and was 
long an Elder in Bethel Church. Among his children were a son named 
Eusebius, a minister, who died in 1827; the Rev. Robert Logan, of Fort 
Worth ; and Joseph A. Logan, and Mrs. Theophilus Gamble, deceased, 
of Augusta. 

Alexander Logan, also a son of James and Hannah, moved to Ken- 
tucky. One of his sons was a minister, and his son is the Rev. Dr. J. V, 
Logan, now President of Central University at Richmond, Kentucky. 

Robert Logan, another son, was a Presbyterian minister who lived 
many years and died at Fincastle, Virginia. He was the father of the 
late John B. I. Logan, of Salem, Roanoke countv. 

Joseph D. Logan, a fourth son, was a Presbyterian minister. His first 
wife was Jane Dandridge, a descendant of Pocahontas, who left one 
son. His second wife was Louisa Lee, one of whose children is Dr. 
Joseph P. Logan, of Atlanta, Georgia. 

Benjamin Logan, a fifth son of James and Hannah, was the father of 
the late J. A. Logan, of Staunton. 


A daughter of James and Hannah Logan, whose name is not known, 
was the wife of the school teacher, McKinney, at Lexington, Kentucky, 
who had the conflict with a wildcat, of which there is an account in 
McClung's " Western Adventure." Sitting alone in his log-cabin school- 
house one morning in May, 1783, McKinney discovered a wildcat glaring 
in at the door. Before he could arm himself with a heavy ruler, the 
animal was upon him, with its teeth fastened in his side and its claws 
tearing his clothing. By pressing the cat against the sharp edge of a 
desk he succeeded in overcoming it, just as the people, aroused by the 
mingled cries of the man and beast, came to the rescue. 


Having fallen into some errors in regard to Colonel Fleming (see 
page no) we give the following sketch, being indebted to one of his 
descendants for some of the facts. 

In August, 1755, the month after Braddock's defeat, William Fleming 
landed in Norfolk. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh, 
and served for some years as a surgeon in the British Navy. Not liking 
that profession he resigned and came to Virginia. As we have seen 
(page 83), he was a lieutenant in the Sandy Creek expedition of 1756 
and acted as surgeon. He was afterwards appointed ensign in the 
First Virginia Regiment, commanded by Washington. In 1758, he was 
commissioned lieutenant, and served in the campaigns of Forbes and 
Abercroinbie. He was made captain in 1760 and stationed at Staunton, 
it is said. After his marriage, in 1763, he resumed at Staunton the 
practice of medicine and surgery. 

Captain Fleming (so called in the record-book) was chosen a Vestry- 
man of Augusta parish, November 24, 1764, in place of John Mathews, 
deceased, and continued to serve in that office till June 27, 1769. The 
records of the Vestry show that he was repeatedly allowed payment of 
bills for professional services to the poor, and from his private account 
books it appears that he was often called to visit patients in Bedford 
county. In the fall of 1769 he removed to the new county of Botetourt, 
of which he was one of the first justices of the peace. (See page 131). 

He commanded the Botetourt regiment at Point Pleasant in 1774. 
In 1779- '80 he was a member of the Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia, and was the only person from west of the Blue Ridge who sat 
in that body. Being a member of the Governor's Council in 1781, he 
acted as chief executive of the State for a time during that year, in the 
temporary absence from Richmond of Mr. Jefferson 

It is said that he was repeatedly sent by the Government to Kentucky 
as commissioner to settle land claims, etc., but never removed from 
Virginia. His death occurred in 1795, at his residence, called Bellmont, 


near the present town of Roanoke, and his remains were interred there 
in the family burying-ground. 


Wallace Estill, of Irish descent, was born in New Jersey in 1707. 
His first wife was Marcy Bowdy. After the birth of five children he 
removed with his family to Augusta county, between 1744 and 1747, and 
a sixth child was born here. 

Benjamin Estill, the second son of Wallace and Marcy, was born 
September 20, 1735, married, in Augusta, Kitty Moffett (see elsewhere 
in this Supplement), was a justice of the peace in 1764, and afterwards 
removed to the Holston. His sons were Captain John M. Estill, of 
Long Glade, Augusta county, and Judge Benjamin Estill, of Southwest 

Wallace Estill married a second time Mary Ann Campbell, of Augusta. 
By this marriage he had nine children, among them, James, born 
November 9, 1750, and Samuel, born September 10, 1755. 

James Estill married in Augusta, Rachel Wright, and removed to 
Greenbrier. Before the year 1780, he removed from Greenbrier to 
Kentucky, and settled at Estill's Station, in the present county of Madi- 
son. In 1781 one of his arms was broken by the rifle-shot of an Indian, 
and before he had fully recovered from the injury he was engaged in a 
memorable conflict with the savages and lost his life. At the head of 
about twenty-five men, in March, 1782, he pursued the same number of 
Wyandotts across the Kentucky river into what is now Montgomery 
county The battle was fought on the site of the town of Mount Ster- 
ling, and is known as the "Battle of Little Mountain," or "Estill's 
Defeat." During the battle, which was unusually protracted, a panic 
seized a part of the whites and they deserted their comrades. The loss 
of the Indians was greater than that of the whites, but they held the 
field and the victory was conceded to them. The battle-field has been 
surveyed and platted at least three times in as many law-suits about 
land locations, and almost every incident of the fight noted on the sur- 
veys. On one of the maps a spot is indicated as the place where 
Captain Estill fell. The depositions in the suits, taken while the survi- 
vors of the battle lived, give a minute history of the affair and the 
transactions of several following days. A county in Kentucky was 
called for Captain Estill. (Collins's History of Kentucky, Volume II, 
pages 168, 636). 

Samuel Estill, younger brother of James, married Jane Tess.and also 
went to Kentucky. He was celebrated in his youth as an Indian fighter, 
and for his great size in his latter years. At the time of his death he 
weighed 412 pounds. 


Colonel William Whitley was born in that part of Augusta which 
now constitutes Rockbridge county, August 14, 1749- He married 
Esther Fuller, and in 177.S removed to Kentucky, taking with him little 
more than his gun, axe and kettle. His brother-in-law, George Clark, 
accompanied him, and in the wilderness they met seven other men who 
joined them. He became a famous Indian fighter and during his life 
was engaged in seventeen battles with the savages. His last expedition 
of this kind, organized by him, was against the Indians south of 
the Tennessee-river. It is known as the " the Nickajack Expedition," 
from the name of the principal town against which it was directed. 
The number of whites engaged was from five hundred to seven 
hundred, and the Indians were routed with great slaughter. In 1813 
Colonel Whitley, then in the sixty-fifth year of his age, volunteered 
under Governor Shelby, and fell at the battle of the Thames, October 
5. He was selected by Colonel Richard M. Johnson to command a 
"forlorn hope " of twenty men, nearly all of whom were killed. It is 
believed by many persons that Whitley, and not Colonel Johnson, 
killed Tecumseh, the celebrated Indian chief, in that battle. Whitley 
county, Kentucky, was called for him. (Collins's History of Kentucky). 


At an early day in the history of the county there were two families 
of this name in Augusta, which, as far as their respective descendants 
know, were not at all related. The ancestor of both families was 
named John. One of these John Moffetts was buried in the North 
Mountain grave-yard. (See page 153.) His son, William, whose wife 
was Elizabeth Gamble (see page 187), was for many years a leading 
citizen of the county. Some of the descendants of James' Moffett, 
brother of William, reside in the Tinkling Spring neighborhood and in 

The prominent representative in the county of the other family was 
Colonel George Moffett, who is often mentioned in the Annals, and to 
some members of this family we here particularly refer. 

John Moffett, the ancestor, was amongst the first settlers of the county. 
His wife's maiden name was Mary Christian, and his children were 
George, Robert, William, John, Mary, Kitty and Hannah. At some 
time prior to 1749 — probably as early as 1742 — he left his home in 
Augusta to go to North Carolina, and was never heard of afterwards. 
In the course of time he was presumed to be dead, probably killed by 
Indians, and his widow, Mary Moffett, qualified as his administratrix, 
February 28, 1749, executing bond in the penalty of ^500, with her 
brothers, Robert and William Christian, as her securities. Mrs. Moffett 


contracted a second marriage with John Trimble, by whom she had one 
son, James Trimble. (See "The Trimbles.") 

For a sketch of Colonel George Moffett see page 191. Two of his 
brothers removed to Kentucky in 1783, with their half-brother, James 
Trimble and many other Augusta people. Robert Moffett, one of the 
two, settled in Jessamine county. He had two sons, John and George, 
who were captured by Indians soon after their arrival in Kentucky, 
The ages of the boys were about six and eight years, respectively. 
They were taken to the Indian town of Piqua, on the Miami river, in 
Ohio, and John was adopted into the family of Tecumseh's mother. 
y\t Wayne's treaty, in 1794, these prisoners were given up, and their 
father was present with the Kentucky troops to receive back his long- 
lost sons. George, the younger of the two, was eager to return home ; 
but John was reluctant to leave his Indian mother and friends. He 
went back, however, with his father, but was restless and unhappy and 
finally returned to Piqua. There he remained with the Indians till they 
sold their reservation and removed west of the Mississippi river. 

The late John A. Trimble, of Ohio, in a letter dated March 31, 1881, 
and addressed to Dr. George B. Moffett, of West Virginia, says that 
when he was a child, in 1807, he saw John Moffett, who was then on his 
return from a visit to Kentucky. He was in the vigor of manhood, 
dressed in Indian costume and traveling on foot. Mr. Trimble saw him 
again in 1828, at his home near Piqua. He had lived during his boyhood 
and youth with Tecumseh, the celebrated Indian chief, and seemed 
much attached to him. At the time of Mr. Trimble's visit, Moffett had 
recently married an elderly lady and settled down to civilized life. But 
in his early life he had an Indian wife. Mr. Trimble says : 

" I was descending the Mississippi in 1819, and landed at a point 
below Memphis called Mills's Landing. Mr. Mills, the pioneer settler 
there, had a trading post with the Mississippi Indians, who were 
encamped about the post. My brother, Gary Trimble, was with me. 
Mr. Mills, hearing we were from Kentucky, claimed relationship, his 
wife being a grand-daughter of Robert Moff'ett, of Woodford. We 
were invited to his house and my brother at once recognized Mrs. Mills 
as a relative whom he had known fifteen years before in Kentucky. She 
related a strange surprise she had a few evenings before from a very old 
Indian woman. She had noticed for several days the manners of this 
woman and her close scrutiny and eager gaze as she would meet her. 
At last she came up to her, exclaiming: 'Moffett! you are MoflTettl' 
Somewhat startled, she called to Mr. Mills, who understood the Indian 
language, and he learned that the woman was the repudiated wife of 
John Moffett, a prisoner among the Indians at Piqua, ' long time ago. 
The woman said she knew Mrs. Mills from her likeness to her uncle 
when he was a boy. She said also that she had a son, Wicomichee, a 
young Indian chief, so called ' because his father left him.' " 

Mr. Trimble says further, that during the Black Hawk war of 1833, in 
Northern Illinois, Wicomichee was employed by General Atkinson to 


recover the captive daughters of Dr. Hull, of Illinois or Missouri, and 
that he did find and bring them into camp to their father. 


James Allen (see page 91) was the oldest son of Wiliam Allen, who 
came from Ireland and settled in Augusta, but at what date is unknown. 
A brother of William was the grandfather of Dr. Alien who long 
resided and practiced medicine in the Stone Church neighborhood. 

It is believed that James Allen was seven years old at the date of the 
emigration to America. His brothers, Hugh and John, were born here. 

James and Hugh married sisters, daughters of Robert Anderson, a 
native of Ireland. John Allen, it is said, was a lieutenant at Brad- 
dock's defeat, and was " lost" in that disaster. Hugh was a lieutenant 
in Colonel Charles Lewis's regiment at Point Pleasant, in 1774. He 
was killed in the battle and his body was buried by the side of Colonel 
Lewis's remains. He had three sons, John, William and Hugh, all of 
whom removed to Kentucky. 

[The widow of Lieutenant Hugh Allen, whose maiden name was Jane 
Anderson, contracted a second marriage, in 1778, with William Craig, 
born in 1750 and died in 1829. The children of William and Jane 
Craig, who lived to maturity, were, i. Jane, wife of James Patterson, of 
Augusta; 2. James Craig, of Mt. Meridian, died in 1863; 3. Sarah, wife 
of James Laird, of Rockingham ; and 4. Margaret, last wife of James 
Bell, of Augusta.] 

James Allen lived near the place now called Willow Spout, on the 
McAdamized road, about eight miles north of Staunton. As we have 
seen, he was a captain of militia in 1756. He participated in the battle 
of Point Pleasant, saw his brother Hugh killed, and placed a stone at 
his grave. He died in 1810 ninety-four years of age, having been an 
elder of Augusta Stone Church for sixty-four years. 

James and Margaret Allen had ten children, two sons and eight 
daughters, viz : 

I. Jane Allen, wife of Captain James Trimble, who removed to Ken- 
tucky in 1783, accompanied by the sons of Hugh Allen and many others. 
(See '' The Trimbles.") 

II. Ann Allen, wife of Colonel George Poage, who removed from 
the county. Their children were, i. Allen; 2. John; 3. William; 4. 
Jane ; 5. Mary ; 6. James ; 7. Thomas, and 8. Hugh. 

III. Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. John McCue. (See page 239.) 

IV. Rebecca, wife of Major John Crawford. (See " The Crawfords.") 

V. Margaret, wife of Major William Bell. (See " The Bells.") 

VI. Mary, wife of Colonel Nicholas Lewis, who removed to Kentucky. 

VII. Nancy, wife of Captain Samuel Frame, whose children were, r. 
John ; 2. Thomas ; and 3. Nancy. 


VIII. Sarah, first wife of James Bell, and mother of Colonel William 
A. Bell. 

IX. William Allen, married Susan Bell, of Kentucky, and removed 
to Kentucky in 17S3 with Captain James Trimble and others. He set- 
tled at Lexington and had six children. His oldest daughter married 
Matthew Jouett, the artist, and her oldest daughter was the wife of 
Richard Menifee, the celebrated Kentucky orator. Another daughter 
married Dr. Alexander Mitchell, of Frankfort, and one of her daugh- 
ters married Oliver Frazer, the artist. One of Captain William Allen's 
sons was Colonel William H. Allen, formerly of Augusta county, and 
another was Colonel James Allen, of Missouri. 

X. James Allen, wiio married Elizabeth Tate. Their children were 
I. William, who married a Miss Poage ; 2. John, who married, ist, 
Polly Crawford, and, 2d, Ann Barry, widow of Dr. William McCue, and 
removing to Michigan, was the founder of Ann Arbor, so named for 
his wife; 3. Mary, wife of Captain John Welsh, 4. Margaret, second 
wife of Major William Poage, of Augusta ; 5 Nancy, wife of Charles 
Lewis; 6. Sarah, wife of George Mayse, of Bath county, and 7. James 
T. Allen, who married Miss Maynard, of Michigan. 


Five brothers, James, Moses, David, John and Alexander Trimble, 
came to America from Armagh, Ireland, some time between 1740 and 
1744. James and John settled in Augusta county. 

I. James Trimble brought with him to America a certificate of a Sir 
Archibald Atkinson testifying to his good character and qualifications 
as a land surveyor. Upon the organization of Augusta county, in 
December, 1745, he was appointed and qualified as deputy county sur- 
veyor. He married Sarah Kersey, of the Cowpasture, and lived near 
the site of Lexington. His remains were interred in the Old Monmouth 
graveyard. His children were six sons and four daughters. Jane, the 
oldest daughter, married William McClure; Agnes married David 
Steele, ancestor of the Rockbridge family of that name ; Sarah married 
Samuel Steele and removed with him to Tennessee, and Rachel mar- 
ried Joseph Caruthers, who also went west. 

John Trimble, son of James, was born August 24, 1749, and married 
Mary Alexander, a daughter of Captain Archibald Alexander by his 
second wife. (See " The Alexanders.") Like his father, he was a sur- 
veyor. He died while still a young man, leaving one son, named James, 
born July 5, 17S1, who went with his mother to Tennessee, after her 
•second marriage to Lewis Jordan. This son, James, came back to Vir- 
ginia, studied law with Judge Coalter at Staunton, and returning to 


Tennessee, practiced his profession at Knoxville and Nashville. He died 
in 1824. A son of his, named John, was recently living near Nashville. 

Alexander Trimble, another son of James, was born February 15, 
1762, married Martha Grigsby, and died in 1816, leaving no child. He 
lived at a place called Holly Hill, three miles east of Lexington. His 
widow, a woman of rare intelligence, survived him for more than fifty 
years. To a letter addressed by her in 1845 to John Trimble, of Nash- 
ville, we are indebted for most of this family history. 

William Trimble, youngest son of James, was sheriff of Rockbridge, 
and died in Staunton in 1794, when on his way to Richmond with taxes 
collected by him. 

II. John Trimble, brother of James, the surveyor, settled in Augusta 
on Middle river, about two miles from Churchville, five from Buffalo 
Gap, and eight from Staunton. He married Mrs. Mary.Moffett, widow 
of John Moffett, and mother of Colonel George Moffett and others. 
His death occurred in 1764, he having been killed by Indians at the 
time of the second Kerr's Creek massacre. (See page 122). His widow 
and his brother, James, qualified as his administrators, November 20, 
1764. He had one son, James. 

James Trimble, son of John, was born in Augusta in 1756. When a 
boy of eight years of age, at the time his father was killed, he and 
others were captured and carried off by Indians. (For an account of 
his capture and rescue see elsewhere in this Supplement.) 

On the i8th of March, 1768, George Moffett qualified in the County 
Court as guardian of "James Trimble, orphan of John Trimble." 

When eighteen years of age, in 1774, James Trimble was a member 
of Captain George Mathews's company at the battle of Point Pleasant. 
During the Revolutionary war he was Captain of Rifle Rangers. His 
second wife was Jane Allen, daughter of Captain James Allen, of 
Augusta. (See "The Aliens," also page 91 of Annals). In 1783 he 
with his family and many others, removed to Kentucky and settled 
in Woodford county. He liberated his slaves, and was about to remove 
to Hillsboro, Ohio, when he died, in 1804. 

Captain James Trimble and his wife, Jane Allen, had eight children, 
six sons and two daughters. One of the daughters, Margaret, married 
her cousin, James A. McCue, of Augusta (see page 239), and spent a 
long and honored life in the county. The other daughter, Mary, mar- 
ried John M. Nelson, a native of Augusta, but long a resident of 
Hillsboro, Ohio. (See page 225). Allen Trimble, oldest son of Captain 
James Trimble, was Governor of Ohio from 1826 to 1830, and one of 
his sons is the Rev. Dr. Joseph M. Trimble, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. William A. Trimble, another son of Captain James Trimble, 
was a Major in the war of 1812, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in the United 
States Army till 1819, and a member of the United States Senate from 
Ohio when he died, in 1821, aged thirty-five years. John A. Trimble, 
of Hillsboro, the youngest son, a gentleman of literary taste and 
accomplishments, married a daughter of Dr. William Boys, of Staunton. 


The large and respectable Trimble family of North Mountain, Augusta 
county, of which the late James B. Trimble was a prominent member, 
are not related, as far as known, to the family of James and John. The 
John Trimble mentioned as living in the North Mountain neighborhood 
in 1755 (see page 66), and also in 1775 (see page 153), was probably the 
ancestor of the James B. Trimble family. 

Judge Robert Trimble and his brother. Judge John Trimble, were 
distinguished citizens of Kentucky. The former was a member of the 
Supreme Court of the United States when he died, in 1828. A sketch 
of him in Peters's Reports, Volume II, says that he was born in Augusta 
county in 1777 ; but all the Kentucky authorities state that he was a 
native of Berkeley county, Virginia. He was probably a grandson of 
one of the three emigrant brothers who did not come to Augusta. 

Fort Defiance is the name of a station on the Valley Railroad, 
about nine miles north of Staunton. The name has given rise to the 
belief that a fort stood on the spot during the Indian wars of the eigh- 
teenth century. Some imaginative or credulous persons undertake to 
tell about the people congregating there in times of danger, of the 
investment of the place by Indians, and of its defence on one or more 
occasions. But no fort was ever built there, and the name is of com- 
paratively recent origin. For this statement we have the authority of 
the venerable Adam Link, who lived at the place and conducted the 
mercantile business there for many years, and who remembers when 
the name originated. The old stone church, four or five hundred yards 
south of " Fort Defiance," was fortified during the early times referred 
to, but, as far as known, was never assailed by an enemy. The report 
that there was a subterranean passage from the church to the spring is 
entirely untrue. 


Captain John Smith, the ancestor of the Augusta and Rockingham 
Smiths, appeared at Orange Court, June 26, 1740, and " proved his im- 
portation," with the view of taking up public land. The record shows 
that his wife's name was Margaret, and that his children were Abraham, 
Henry, Daniel, John and Joseph. They came from Ireland by way of 
Philadelphia, and were accompanied by Robert McDowell. Captain 
Smith and others qualified as captain of militia at Orange Court, June 
24, 1742. We next hear of him as a captain of rangers in 1755. (See 
page 76.) 

The late Benjamin H. Smith, of Kanawha, a great-grandson of Cap- 


tain John Smith, relates in an unpublished manuscript a series of events 
in the life of his ancestor, of which there is elsewhere no account. 
According to this narrative, at some time not stated. Captain Smith, 
with seventeen men, held a fort where Pattonsburg, on James river, now 
stands, which was invested by three hundred French and Indians. After 
a brave resistance for three days, the garrison agreed to surrender the 
fort upon a stipulation allowing them to return to their homes. Aston- 
ished and mortified at finding so few men in the fort, the enemy disre- 
garded the terms of surrender and held the survivors, only nine or ten 
in number, as prisoners. Three of Captain Smith's sons were with the 
party, one of whom was wounded during the siege and killed by an 
Indian after the surrender. The prisoners were taken by the French 
down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans, and on the way 
the two young Smiths, who had survived the disaster at the fort, died. 
Only five of the prisoners lived to reach New Orleans. The Captain 
and two others were sent to France, and he alone returned to America, 
after an absence of two years. 

Whatever foundation there may be for this story, some of the details 
are certainly incorrect. There was a fort, so-called, at the mouth of 
Looney's Creek, a mile above Pattonsburg, but it is safe to say that 
there never was an inroad into the Valley of three hundred French and 
Indians. The only Indian raid upon the "Pattonsburg neighborhood, of 
which we have an authentic account, occurred in 1761. (See pages 107, 

Captain Smith died at the residence of his son, Daniel, two miles 
north of Harrisonburg, after the beginning of the Revolutionary war. 
He applied for a commission in the army, but was refused on account of 
his age, which greatly offended him His children who survived him 
were three sons and one daughter. The latter married Hugh Bowen, 
of Southwest Virginia, who was killed at the battle of King's Mountain. 

I. Abraham Smith, son of John, was captain of militia in 1756. (See 
pages 91, 92.) In 1758 he was court-martialed, but acquitted, and his 
accuser subjected to punishment. (See page 103.) In 1776 he was 
colonel of militia. (See page 159.) In 1778, he was one of the first 
justices of Rockingham and county lieutenant. He owned a large 
landed estate at the foot of North Mountain, about two miles from 
North River, which descended to his son Henry. 

John Smith, son of Abraham, was an ensign at Point Pleasant. He 
was the father of the late Abraham Smith, of Rockingham, of Joseph 
and Silas H. Smith, of Augusta, and of a daughter named Mancy, 
wife of William Crawford. (See "The Crawfords.") His wife was 
Mary Jane Smith, of Culpeper, a descendant of the Captain Smith who 
visited the Valley, in 1716, with Governor Spotswood. Her first hus- 
band was Silas Hart, who died without children. 

II. Daniel Smith, son of John, was for some time presiding justice of 
the County Court of Augusta. In 1776 he was captain of militia (see 
page 159.) When Rockingham county was organized in 1778, he was 


one of the first justices of the peace. He was appointed also colonel 
of militia and one of the coroners. The first County Court of Rock- 
ingham was held at his house. His wife was Jane Harrison, sister of 
Benjamin Harrison, of Rockingham. On the return of the troops from 
Yorktown, the victory was celebrated by the military of Rockingham 
at a grand review. Colonel Smith's horse, taking fright at the firing, 
.sprang aside, and spraining his rider's back, caused his death in a few 
days. Three of his sons participated in the siege of Yorktown, viz: 

1. John, father of the late Judge Daniel Smith. 

2. Daniel, who was also at Point Pleasant. 

3. Benjamin, father of Benjamin Harrison Smith, of Kanawha. 

III. William Smith, son of John and brother of Abraham and Daniel. 
His family went to Kentucky and have been lost sight of by their Vir- 
ginia relatives. 

The Harrisons, of Rockingham, were intimately connected with the 
Smiths, but the early history of the former family is involved in much 
obscurity. They are said to have come from Connecticut, and to have 
been descendants of Thomas Harrison, one of the judges who con- 
demned King Charles I to death. We find, that on July 27, 1744, the 
Rev. John Craig baptized Elizabeth H(?rison, " an adult person " ; and 
on January 21, 1747, he baptized David Stuart and Abigal Harrison, 
"adult persons, after profession of faith and obedience." It is pre- 
sumed that the females mentioned were members of the Harrison 
family. John and Reuben Harrison are mentioned under date of 1750, 
on page 46. Our information is that they were brothers. John never 
married, and was killed by his slaves. Reuben married, and had several 
children. Captain Daniel Harrison is mentioned in 1755 (page 78), and 
again in 1756 (pages 91 and 92). Nathaniel Harrison was fined by the 
court-martial of Augusta county, October 30, 176(1, for failing to mus- 
ter. How Daniel and Nathaniel were related to Reuben, is not known. 
Thomas Harrison, the founder of Harrisonburg, the son of Reuben, 
left four sons : Ezekiel, Reuben, John and Josiah, and one daughter, 
who married a Warren. The present Reuben Harrison, of Rocking- 
ham, is a son of Reuben and grandson of Thomas. 

Benjamin Harrison, of Rockingham, was a member of the Augusta 
court-martial, April 19, 1769, and in 1774 commanded a company at 
Point Pleasant. In July, 1775, he was appointed captain of a company 
of minute-men. When Rockingham was organized, in 1778, he was 
appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the militia of that county. According 
to the information we have, he was not related to the family of Reuben 
and Daniel Harrison, but came from Eastern Virginia, probably Lou- 
doun county. 

Dr. Peachy R. Harrison, long an eminent citizen of Rockingham, was 
a son of Colonel Benjamin Harrison, and the youngest of eight children. 
He was born in 1777, and died in 1848. His wife was Jane Stuart, a 
daughter of John Stuart, who lived near the Stone church, Augusta. 


The distinguished Dr. Gessner Harrison, Professor of Ancient Lan- 
guages at the University of Virginia, was the second son of Dr. Peachy 
R. Harrison. He was appointed professor at the age of twenty-one, 
and held the position thirty years. 

Jg®"" In mentioning the denial by one of Mrs. Ingles's descendants of 
the birth of an infant, etc., during Mrs. L's captivity, we must not be 
understood as questioning the historical accuracy of Dr. Hale. (See 
" Mrs. Floyd's Narrative.") He is, no doubt, better informed in regard 
to the matter than any one else. 


Archibald Alexander, the Captain in the Sandy Creek e.xpedition, 
first sheriff of Rockbridge, &c. (see pages 83 and 164), was born in 
County Down, Ireland, in 1708, and there married his cousin, Margaret 
Parks. Their oldest child, a daughter, was born in Ireland, in 1735. 
Coming to America, in 1737, he settled first at Nottingham, Pennsyl- 
vania, where four more children were born, including William, the 
oldest son. About the year 1747 the family came to the Valley and 
settled in Borden's grant, on Timber Ridge. The wife of Captain 
Alexander died in 1753. At the time of his wife's death. Captain Alex- 
ander was in Pennsylvania, having gone there, with John Houston, to 
present a call to the Rev. John Brown to become pastor of New Provi- 
dence and Timber Ridge congregations. Before Mr. Brown's arrival, 
the celebrated Samuel Davies visited the Valley and preached at Tim- 
ber Ridge. No doubt to the surprise and dissatisfaction of the plain 
Scotch-Irish people of the Valley, Mr. Davies carried a gold-headed 
cane and wore a finger-ring, which had been presented to him in Eng- 
land. Most of the original members of New Providence and Timber 
Ridge churches, including Archibald Alexander, had been converted 
in Pennsylvania, under the preaching of George Whitefield, and were 
called " New Lights." In 1757 he married his second wife, Jane McClure. 
Her children were five sons and three daughters. Of Archibald Alex- 
ander's children, six sons and six daughters became heads of families. 
The names of the sons were William, Joseph, John, James, Samuel and 
Archibald. Mary, a daughter of the second wife, became the wife of 
John Trimble. (See "The Trimbles.") 

Robert Alexander, the founder of the first classical school in the 
Valley (see page 42), was a brother of Captain Archibald Alexander, 
and preceded the latter to America and to the Valley. He married, in 
Pennsylvania, Esther Beard. His children were — 

I. William, who died in Rockbridge, in 1829, leaving children ; 2. 
Robert, who lived in Campbell county, and was clerk of the county 


court for many years, ^eing succeeded in office by his son, and he by 
his son, both called Jack Alexander; 3. Peter, who, it is believed, went 
to the West; 4. Hugh, who died unmarried; 5. James, who married 
Peggy Lyle, of Rockbridge, and removed to Greenbrier; and daughters, 
Ann, Esther, Ellen and Sally. The last-named was the second wife of 
Colonel John Wilson, of Bath county. 

William Wilson and his wife, Barbara McKane, were married in Dub- 
lin, Ireland. They came to America about 1720, and settled at Forks 
of Brandy wine, Chester county, Pennsylvania. At that place, their son 
John, mentioned above, was born, in December, 1732 In the fall of 
1747, this family came to Augusta, and settled near New Providence 
church. John went to school to Robert Alexander, and became a skilful 
surveyor. The Rev. William Wilson, of Augusta, was a cousin of Wil- 
liam Wilson and wrote his will. 

In 1762, William Wilson and his family removed to Jackson's river, 
now Highland county, near Stony Run church. The next year they 
were assailed by a band of Indians, supposed to have been a part of 
those who perpetrated the first Kerr's Creek massacre. [See "The 
Raid upon the Wilson Family."] 

After this Indian raid the Wilsons returned to the neighborhood of 
New Providence, and remained there till the close of the Revolutionary 
war, when they went back to Jackson's river. William Wilson died in 
March, 1795. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, John Wilson entered the military 
service, and he is said to have commanded a regiment of militia at the 
siege of Yorktown. Previous to the war he married Isabella Seawright, 
but she died childless in a short time. In December, 1785, he married 
Sally Alexander, daughter of his old teacher. He was one of the first 
justices of Bath, when that county was established, in 1791. His wife 
died in 1808, and he on the 21st of January, 1820. 

The children of Colonel John Wilson were a son, William, born Jan- 
uary 9, 1787, at the house of his grandfather, Robert Alexander; and 
two daughters, Peggy, who married Mr. Hanna, of Greenbrier, and 
Esther, who married Major John Bolar, of Bath. 

William Wilson, Jr., married Sally McClung. His children were John, 
who died unmarried, Susan, who married Washington Stephenson, and 
Sarah, who married Adam Stephenson, of Highland county. 


Mrs. Margaret Hanna, of Greenbrier county, who died in 1878, at the 
age of eighty-seven years, left an account of the assault by Indians 
upon the Wilson family in July, 1763, written by her at the dictation of 
her father, Colonel John Wilson. (See "The Wilsons.") This manu- 


script having come into the hands of Dr. John ^. Hale, was pubHshed 
by him in The Kanawha Gazette, of December 27, 1887, and we extract 
from it as follows. The scene of the occurrence was in the present 
county of Highland, near Stony Run church : 

"Just at this time the Wilsons were erecting a new and larger log- 
house than the original cabin that had hitherto served them. 

"John had gone to Dickinson's Fort, not far away, to get some help 
for the house-raising next day ; while William, Jr. (called Thomas by 
others), had gone to a little mill, about a mile distant, to get some meal 
ground for the house raising party. 

"Two of the sisters, Margaret and Elizabeth, were out on the river 
bank washing flax-tow ; Mrs. Wilson, who was in feeble health, had 
walked out to where they were at work; an Irishman had a loom in 
the yard and was weaving; two of the sisters, Susan and Barbara, were 
in the cabin ironing the family clothes, and the father, with some other 
men, were at work on the new house logs, when the attack was made. 

" In returning from the Fort, John encountered the Indians suddenly, 
in a turn of the road. They fired on him, and a ball passed through 
his clothes just under his arm, cutting the gusset of his shirt. He 
wheeled his horse quickly and fled back to the Fort to get immediate 
help, to go to the rescue of the family, and about twenty returned with 

"The Indians had passed on to the cabin. The girls at the river, 
washing, saw them coming and started to run, and at the same time 
tried to help their mother away, but she told them to go and save 
themselves and leave her. In passing, an Indian threw a tomahawk at 
the old lady, and severely wounded her in the wrist as she threw up her 
hand to save her face. The Indians did not pursue them, but hurried 
on to the cabin. They fired at the Irish weaver, but he escaped with a 
flesh wound in his shoulder. 

" As they entered the cabin, one of the girls, Barbara, ran out and 
was knocked down and her skull probably fractured, but she was not 
scalped. The girl remaining in the cabin, Susan, closed the door, and 
when an Indian put his hand in to try to open it, she mashed and 
burned his fingers with a hot smoothing iron. 

" By this time, the father and his men from the new house founda- 
tion came up, and attacked the Indians with hand-spikes and foot-adze; 
the latter, in ihe hands of Mr. Wilson, and drove them off. 

" When John and his party arrived it was dark, and they were unable 
to see what mischief had been done. They ascended an elevated point 
near by, to see if they could discover any fire-light or other evidences 
of life about the cabin. 

"Seeing none, they concluded or feared that the family had all been 
destroyed. In nearing the cabin other dangers suggested themselves, 
the family had several fierce dogs, which had been trained to great 
watchfulness, some were taught to sleep at the back door of the cabin, 
and some at the front, so as to give warning of approaches from either 


direction; it also occurred to them that if any of the family survived, 
they would have sentries stationed out to watch for a possible return of 
the Indians during the night, and that these sentries might fire on them. 
In the uncertainties, John Wilson himself took the lead, cautiously 
approached the cabin, and succeeded in reaching it without accident or 

"Upon entering the cabin he was rejoiced to find his father and sister 
Susan present and unharmed, but was at the same time pained to find 
his sister Barbara badly wounded, and his mother, two sisters, his 
brother William and the Irish weaver all missing, and their fates 

" At early dawn next morning, John and his party started out to search 
for the missing ones. He tracked his mother by her blood about a mile 
up the river, to where she had alternately walked and crawled, proba- 
bly not knowing whither she went. When found she was entirely out 
of her mind and did not recognize her son and friends, supposing them 
to be Indians still pursuing her; she rallied however, and lived for 
many years afterward. 

"William, Jr., though he usually wore moccasins, had on the day 
before put on a pair of shoes. Going toward the mill the searchers 
found by his shoe-tracks where he had attempted to run when the 
Indians discovered him — where he had slipped and fallen and been 
captured by them — where, further along, they had tied him to a tree, 
and afterwards loosened him again, and taken him off with them. His 
father always thought that if he had had on moccasins instead of shoes 
he would have escaped and avoided capture. His pursuers were con- 
fident that he had made his shoe-track ' sign ' as conspicuous as possi- 
ble, so as to enable them to follow the trail, but they never overtook 
him, and he was carried off to the Indian towns beyond the Ohio. 

" A returned prisoner reported to the family, some time after, that 
she had seen him at the Chilicothe towns, but was not allowed to talk 
with him. She said he had been adopted by a widow who had lost a 
son, and was kindly treated. He never got home, but died in cap- 

Another account, by John W. Stephenson, Esq., of Bath, a descendant 
of Colonel John Wilson, is as follows : 

"John Wilson, on the day of the raid, was returning from Staunton, 
where he had been to get nails to be used in putting up the new house, 
and had purchased a new hat. When the Indians shot at him his hat 
fell off, and he stopped his horse and picked it up. The Indians were 
so close he could hear their peculiar grunt of satisfaction, thinking they 
had killed him. He went to a stockade fort, near where Williamsville 
now is, and got the men to return with him that night. One of the men 
was David Gwin,then about eighteen years of age. He was afterwards 
a captain in the Revolution, one of the largest land owners of Bath 
county, and grandfather of the Rev. Daniel W. Gwin, D. D., of Ken- 
tucky, a distinguished Baptist minister." 


Mr. Stephenson states that the son of William Wilson, who was car- 
ried off by the Indians, was named Thomas. 


James Robertson and his son, also named James, came to America 
from Coleraine, North Ireland, in 1737, and settled in Augusta county. 
James the younger died in 1754, and his will is recorded in Will Book 
No. 2, page 72. It is dated September 11, 1751, and was proved in court 
November 20, 1754. The testator left his real estate to his sons George 
and Alexander. His personal estate footed up ;^63, 3s., about |2io. 
The real estate consisted of 274 acres, conveyed by John Lewis to James 
Robertson, February 18, 1743, lying on Lewis's creek, "in the Manor of 
Beverley, " adjoining the lands of the Rev. John Craig and others, being 
a part of 2,071 acres conveyed to Colonel Lewis by William Beverley 
by deed dated February 22, 1738. It lay between Staunton and Mr. 
Craig's residence, which was about five miles from town. 

Of George Robertson, the older son of James, we have little infor- 
mation; Alexander Robertson, the second son, was born November 22, 
1748, about a mile from Staunton, it is said, but the distance was probably 
three or four miles. He married Margaret Robinson, August 18, 1773, 
in Bedford county. She was born April 13, 1755, on the Roanoke river, 
then in Augusta, now in Montgomery county, and is described as a 
woman of extraordinary intellect and exemplary Christian character. 
She died at the residence of her son-in-law, ex-Governor Robert P. 
Letcher, in Frankfort, Kentucky, June 13, 1846, in her 92d year. 

In August, 1777, George Robertson resided in Botetourt, and Alexan- 
der in Montgomery. On the loth of that month, George and his wife, 
Jane, conveyed their one-half of the Augusta farm to Alexander, in 
consideration of ^100; and on the 12th, Alexander and wife conveyed 
the whole tract to Joseph Bell. 

In 1779, Alexander Robertson removed with his family to Kentucky, 
and settled in Mercer county, where he built " the first fine house in 
Kentucky." He is said to have been a man of strong mind, sterling 
moral qualities, and very popular. He was a member of the State Con- 
vention of 1788, at Richmond (Kentucky being then a part of Virginia), 
and a member from Kentucky of the Virginia Legislature the ensuing 
winter. He died in 1802. 

George Robertson, son of Alexander, was born in Mercer county, 
November 18, 1790. He was educated at various Kentucky schools, 
and finally studied law. When just nineteen years of age, he married 
Eleanor Bainbridge, who was under sixteen, and set up house-keeping 
in a " buckeye house " of two rooms. Four persons began married life in 


this house and while occupying it were successively elected to Congress 
—John Boyle, Samuel McKee, George Robertson and Robert P. Letcher. 
Robertson resigned in his third term, i82i-'23. He was Chief Justice 
of Kentucky from December 24, 1829, till April 7,1843; and again a 
Judge of the Court of Appeals from 1864 to 1871, when he resigned. 
His standing is indicated by the offices tendered to him. In 1824, he 
was offered, but declined, the mission to Columbia, South America, 
and in 1828, the mission to Peru. He four times declined seats in the 
Federal Cabinet, and twice a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. Robertson county, Kentucky, was called for him. 
(Collins's History of Kentucky, volume 2, page 687.) He died. May 16, 
1874- . 

Major John Hays (see pages 143 and 215) lived on a farm under 
the Jump mountain, Rockbridge. His sons were — i. Michael Hays, of 
Ohio, who was an officer in the United States Army in 1S12; 2. Andrew 
Hays, a distinguished lawyer of Nashville, Tennessee; 3. John Brown 
Hays, of Columbia, Tennessee, whose wife was a sister of President 
Polk; and, 4. James Campbell Hays, of Tennessee and Texas, who 
was the father of Jack Hays, the Texan Ranger. 


On the 2d of July, 1744, a treaty was concluded at Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, between Thomas Lee, member of the Council of State and 
one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Colony of Virginia, and 
William Beverley, Colonel and County Lieutenant of the county of 
Orange and member of the House of Burgesses, Commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Governor of Virginia, and twenty-five chiefs of the Six 
United Nations of Indians. In consideration of four hundred pounds, 
current money of Pennsylvania, paid partly in goods and partly in gold 
money, the Indians renounced their right and claim to all the lands in 
the Colony of Virginia, and acknowledged the title thereto of the King 
of Great Britain. This is known as the Treaty of Lancaster, and the 
instrument was witnessed by James Patton, Robert Brooke, Jr., James 
Madison and others. The deed was proved in the General Court and 
ordered to be recorded, October 25, 1744. 

Some dissatisfaction having arisen among the Indians in regard to 
the Treaty of Lancaster, a conference was held at Logstown, on the 
Ohio, in 1752, between chiefs of the Six Nations and Joshua Fry, Luns- 
ford Lomax and James Patton. Commissioners of Virginia ; and another 
deed was executed by six chiefs, consenting to the deed of July 2, 1744, 
and promising to assist and protect British subjects settled " on the 
southern or eastern part of the river called Alleghany." This deed was 


dated June 13, 1752, and was witnessed by George Croghan, Thomas 
McKee, William Preston and others. 

Logstown was on the western bank of the Ohio, eighteen miles below 
Pittsburg. It was an important Indian town, and consisted of sixty or 
seventy cabins inhabited by a number of confederated tribes, including 
Shawnees. (See page 48.) 

At Fort Pitt, on July 10, 1775, the chiefs and sachems of the Six 
Nations, in consideration of twelve thousand Spanish dollars, "or the 
value thereof in merchandise," and also "the great justice and integ- 
rity " of George Croghan to the Indians, conveyed a tract of land on 
the south side of the Ohio River, beginning opposite the mouth of 
French creek, or Beef river, etc., etc., containing by estimation six 
millions (6,000,000) of acres. The deed was signed by six chiefs, one 
making the mark of " the hill," another of " the mountain," etc. ; and 
was witnessed by John Campbell, Thomas Hosier and George Rootes. 

On the 30th of July, 1777, George Croghan "of Fort Pitt, in the State 
of Virginia," by deed to Dr. Thomas Walker and others, in consider- 
ation of five thousand Spanish dollars, conveyed "one clear eight and 
fortieth part" (125,000 acres) of the tract granted by the Indians to 
Croghan. Among the witnesses to this deed were George Rootes and 
Strother Jones. 

George Rootes is said to have lived in Augusta, near the Stone church, 
but we have found no trace of him in our county archives. From the 
catalogue of William & Mary College, we learn that, in 1771, Philip 
Rootes, son of Philip Rootes of Augusta, was a student at that institu- 
tion ; and in 1779, Thomas Rootes, of Augusta, was a student there. 
Strother Jones was the son of Gabriel Jones of Augusta. 

The deeds herein referred to are printed in full in the book called 
the " Page Family in Virginia." 


Ten or eleven brothers named McKee came from Ireland to America 
in 1738, and settled near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Three of these — 
Robert, William and John— came to Augusta county, but at what date is 
uncertain. Their descendants state that it was about 1760, but the records 
of the county show that John McKee purchased a tract of land in the 
forks of James river, on August 16, 1752. 

I. Robert McKee died June 11, 1774, aged eighty-two years, and his 
wife, Agnes, January 29, 1780, aged eighty-four. They had two sons, 
William and John. 

I. William McKee, son of Robert and Agnes, was born in 1732, and, 
probably while living in Pennsylvania, was, with his father, at Braddock's 
defeat. He married his first cousm, Miriam, daughter of John McKee, 
Sr. His residence was a few miles west of Lexington, and the farm is 


now (1888) owned by descendants of the Rev Dr. Baxter. It is said 
that he was at the battle of Point Pleasant, and if so, probably belonged 
to Colonel Fleming's Botetourt regiment. He represented Rockbridge 
repeatedly in the Legislature, and in 1788 was the colleague of General 
Andrew Moore in the State Convention which ratified the Federal Con- 
stitution. He was also one of the first trustees of Liberty Hall Acad- 
emy. In 1796 he removed to Kentucky, and died there in 1816. He 
was known in Virginia as Colonel McKee. 

Samuel McKee, the fifth son of Colonel William McKee, was born in 
1774. He was a member of Congress from Kentucky from 1809 to 1817^ 
a State judge, and also Judge of the United States district court. His 
sons were Colonel William R. McKee. who was killed at the battle of 
Buena Vista in February, 1847 ; Judge George R. McKee, and Dr. Alex- 
ander R. McKee. Lieutenant Hugh W. McKee, of the United States 
Navy, a son of Colonel William R., was killed May 11, 1871, in a fight 
between the men of several war steamers and the Coreans, of South- 
eastern Asia. 

James McKee, the thirteenth son of Colonel William McKee, was the 
father of the Rev. Dr. J. L. McKee, Vice-President of Centre College, 

2. John McKee, the other son of Robert and Agnes, married Esther 
Houston, aunt of General Sam Houston. A son of his, also named 
John, was a member of Congress from Tennessee, and one of the first 
United States Senators from Alabama. 

II. William McKee, the pioneer, died in Virginia. His family moved 
to Kentucky about i788-'9o, and most of his descendants live in that 

III. John McKee, the youngest of the three brothers who came to the 
Valley, lived on Kerr's creek, now Rockbridge. His wife was Jane 
Logan, and was killed by Indians, as related on page 115. He married 
a second time, as appears from a deed executed March 14, 1774, by 
"John McKee and Rosanna, his wife, of Kerr's creek, Augusta county," 
conveying two hundred and eighty-one acres of land, part in Augusta 
and part in Botetourt, Rockbridge not having been formed at that 
time. He died March 2, 1792, aged eighty-four. Several of his eight 
children went to Kentucky, others remaining in Virginia. His de. 
scendants are numerous. 


Alexander and Patrick Crawford, brothers, were among the earliest 
settlers in Augusta county. They are presumed to have been natives 
of the north of Ireland, like most of their cotemporaries in the county, 
but nothing can be learned about their early history. The descendants 
of both say there was a third brother who also came to the Valley, but 


whose name they do not know. It may be that this third brother was 
the grand-father of WilUam H. Crawford, of Georgia, whose father, Joel 
Crawford, removed from Nelson county, Virginia, to South Carolina, in 

Alexander Craivford, the eider of the two, married Mary McPheeters, 
but whether in Ireland or America is not known. He acquired an ex- 
tensive tract of land in Augusta, covering a part of the Little North 
mountain, and extending far out into the plain. It embraced sixteen 
hundred and forty acres. His dwelHng stood on a knoll, at the eastern 
base of the mountain, and looked out towards the rising sun on a wide 
tract of level land. It was " beautiful for situation." The spot is about 
two miles northeast of Buffalo Gap, and a hundred yards south of the 
present residence of Baxter Crawford, a great-grand-son of Alexander 
and Mary. The site of the house is now marked by a thicket, sur- 
rounding a pile of unhewn stones which composed the chimney. 

Here Alexander and Mary Crawford had eleven children, seven sons 
and four daughters. They had an abundance of all the good things the 
times and country afforded , and until the Indian wars arose, lived in 
peace and plenty. They belonged to a God-fearing race, and doubt- 
less walked in the old ways of their pious ancestors. The father and 
mother, were, however, both slaughtered by savages, on their premises, 
with no human eye near enough to witness the tragedy. 

Much uncertainty has existed as to the date of the occurrence. But 
at November County Court, 1764, William McPheeters qualified as ad- 
ministrator of Alexander Crawford, and, although some of the latter's 
descendants insist upon an earlier date, it seems highly probable, if not 
absolutely certain, that the slaughter was perpetrated by some of the 
Indians who made the second raid upon Kerr's Creek, in October of 
the year mentioned. 

The rumor had gone abroad that an invasion by Indians was threat- 
ened, and all the Crawford family had taken refuge in a house at the 
Big Spring. This house was called a fort, being better able to resist 
an attack than most dwellings of the period, and was often resorted to 
by the people around in times of danger. It is probably the ancient 
stone house, still standing and used as a dwelling, on the south side of 
Middle river, two miles south of the present village of Churchville, 
and about three miles from Alexander Crawford's. It has long been 
known as the "old Keller house." The windows are few in number 
and very narrow, hardly more than a foot wide. 

On the day of the slaughter, early in the morning, it is said, Alex- 
ander Crawford and his wife returned home to procure a supply of 
vegetables, while two of their sons, William and John, went upon the 
mountain to salt the horses which had been turned out to graze. From 
their elevation on the side of the mountain, the two youths saw the 
smoke and flames of the burning homestead. On the same day, pro- 
bably, the home of John Trimble, some three miles off, on Middle 
River, was assailed, as is related elsewhere. 


We may imagine that the men of the neighborhood were somewhat 
slow to assemble. No one knew but his house would be attacked next, 
and every man felt it necessary to protect his own family if possible. 
When the people rallied and repaired to the Crawford place, the dwell-, 
ing had been consumed by fire. The charred remains of Ale.xander 
Crawford were found in the ashes, showing that he had been killed in 
the house. His wife's body was found outside, and it was inferred that 
she had attempted to escape, but was overtaken and tomahawked. 
The remains of both were gathered up and buried in the Glebe grave- 

The sale-bill of Alexander Crawford's personal estate amounted to 
;^334. 17s, 9d, about |i,ii4, a larger sum than was common at that day. 
We mention as sorhe indication of the state of the times, that among 
the articles sold by the administrator were a still and a wolf-trap. All 
the family records and other household effects perished with the 

It is related that Alexander Crawford was ambitious to be the founder 
of "a clan," such as we read of in Scottish history, and impressed it 
upon his children that they must respect the right of primogeniture 
then existing by law. His oldest son, William, did not approve of the 
scheme, and thus his father's wishes were defeated. The latter was a 
skilled worker in iron. 

The children of Alexander and Mary Crawford were — 

I. William Crawford, who is named first in every list. In an old 
grave-yard, on a high hill overlooking Middle river, on the farm of the 
late Ephraim Geeding, is an ancient sand-stone, flat on the ground and 
broken in two. The inscription upon it, which is nearly illegible, is as 
follows : 

"Wm. Crawford, departed this life October 15, 1792, aged 48 years." 

He was therefore twenty years old when his parents were massa- 
cred. His will was proved in court at December term, 179.2. In it he 
mentions his wife, Rachel, and his children, Alexander, James, John, 
William, George, Polly, Nancy, Jenny and Rachel. He also alludes to 
James Elliott as a neighboring land-owner, and from this person, prob- 
ably, the highest point of the Great North Mountain was named. Of 
the children of William Crawford — 

I. Alexander married Rachel Lessley, and his children were, (i.) 
William, whose wife was a daughter of Colonel Andrew Anderson, and 
whose children are Andrew A. Crawford, Mrs. Baxter Crawford, Mrs. 
Joseph B. Trimble and others. His youngest son, James Robert, gradu- 
ated at the Virginia Military Institute, served on the staff of Colonel 
William L. Jackson during the late war, was wounded at Droop Moun- 
tain, and died April 26, 1864. (2 ) Polly married James Lessley, her 
second cousin, and is still living (18S8) on a part of the domain 
acquired by her great-grandfather, Alexander. (3.) Rebecca, wife of 
Captain James Bell, whom she long survived. (4.) James, who married 
his full cousin, Rachel, daughter of John Crawford, and died in Texas. 


(5.) Rachel, wife of Henry Bear, whose son. Christian A. Bear, now 
lives on a part of the 1,640 acre tract. (6.) Alexander, whose wife was 
Mary Hottle. and whose children are William T Crawford and others. 
He was the founder of ' Crawford's Springs," now called Augusta 
White Sulphur. 

2. James Crawford, son of William, married Nancy Sawyers and went 
to Tennessee. 

John, William and George, the third, fourth and fifth children of Wil- 
liam, also went to Tennessee. 

6. Polly, wife of John Armstrong, had two sons : William, who went 
to Texas, and John, who went to Missouri 

7. Nancy, wife of James Tolman of Pocahontas county. 

8. Jenny, wife of John Gillespie of Tennessee. 

9. Rachael died young and unmarried. 

II. Edward Crawford, son of Alexanderand Mary, graduated at Prince- 
ton College in 1775, and was licensed as a preacher in 1777. He was a 
member of Lexington Presbytery at its organization, September 26, 
1786, and was appointed to preach for a month in Tygart's Valley and 
Harrison county. At the meetings of Presbytery, in April and Septem- 
ber, 1792, at Lexington and Harrisonburg, respectively, he was the 
Moderator. Subsequently, he became a member of Abingdon Presby- 
tery, living in Southwest Virginia or East Tennessee. 

III. John Crawford, third son of Alexander and Mary, was married 
three times successively. His first wife was Peggy, eldest daughter of 
his uncle, Patrick Crawford, by whom he had one daughter, who mar- 
ried Daniel Falls and went to Ohio. His second wife was Mary Craig, 
by whom he had a son, Samuel, and five daughters. Samuel went to 
Illinois, and is said to have had sixteen children. Nothing is known of 
the five daughters, except that one of them, Polly, was the wife of the 
Rev. Samuel Gillespie of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The third wife of John Crawford was Sally Newman of Fredericks- 
burg, and she had five children who lived to maturity : James, William 
and John, all of whom emigrated to Missouri, about 1838 ; a daughter, 
Nancy, wife of LeRoy Newman, her first cousin ; and another, Fanny, 
wife of Henry Rippetoe, who still survives. 

John Crawford was a man of great energy and activity. It is said 
that he was engaged in all the expeditions of his day against the Indians, 
including Point Pleasant. He was a soldier during the whole Revolu- 
tionary war, and when not in the field was employed in making guns 
and other weapons, having acquired his father's skill as an iron-worker. 
The day after the battle of the Cowpens, in which he participated, he 
was promoted from the ranks to a first lieutenancy on account of his 
gallantry in that celebrated battle. He was also at Guilford, and with 
General Greene in all his southern campaign. Yet he never would ac- 
cept pension or bounty lands. 

Like his father, however, John Crawford was desirous of acquiring a 
large landed estate, and there was a brisk competition between him and 


his neighbor, Francis Gardiner (pronounced by the old people " Francie 
Garner") as to the ownership of the Little North Mountain range. As 
related, each discovered about the same time that a certain tract of a 
hundred acres had not been patented, and both sought to acquire it. 
Gardiner got ahead of Crawford by starting to Richmond first, but the 
latter mounted a blooded mare and never rested till he reached the 
capital, passing his rival on the way. Crawford emerged from the land 
office with his title complete, and met Gardiner at the door going in. 
The mare, which was no doubt worth much more than the land, died 
from the effects of the trip. 

It is a pity to spoil a grand story by suggesting a doubt in reference 
to it, but it must be mentioned that such a trip to Richmond could 
hardly have been necessary in order to obtain title to vacant land, as 
the county surveyor was authorized to make the entry. Nevertheless, 
the main portions of the story are well authenticated. 

The rivalry between the two neighbors waxed hot, and meeting one 
day while prospecting on the mountain, they became engaged in a fight, 
of which one or both, no doubt, duly repented. 

John Crawford died at his home on Buffalo branch, in January, 1832, 
and was buried in Hebron church-yard. His tombstone gives his age 
as ninety-one years, and, if correctly, he was the oldest son of Alex- 
ander and Mary, instead of the third. 

IV. James Crawford, fourth son of Alexander and Mary, became a 
Presbyterian minister, and was licensed to preach in 1779, He removed 
to Kentucky, and was for many years pastor of Walnut Hill church, 
near Lexington. 

V. Alexander Crawford, fifth child of Alexander and Mary, was at 
the battle of Point Pleasant. His first wife was a Miss Hopkins, and 
his second a Mrs. McClure. The children of the first wife were Polly, 
Betsy, Kitty and Sally; and of the second, James E., William, George, 
Samuel and Robert. He lived on Walker's creek, Rockbridge, and was 
for many years an elder in New Providence church. His death oc- 
curred June 19, 1830. Three of his sons — William, George and Samuel 
— died young. Robert lived and died on his father's homestead in 
Rockbridge. A grandson of his. Rev. Alexander Crawford, is now 
(1888) pastor of a church at Campbellsville, Kentucky. James E. Craw- 
ford spent the latter years of his life in the Great Calf Pasture, Augusta. 
His children are Baxter Crawford and others. 

[Another Alexander Crawford died the latter part of 1764, or early in 
1765. The inventory of his estate was filed March 19, 1765. He had at 
least two children, Mary and Rebecca, for whom a William Crawford 
qualified as guardian in 1768. What family he belonged to, we cannot 

VI. Rebecca, daughter of Alexander and Mary Crawford, married 
John Sawyers, and went to Tennessee or Kentucky. 

VII. Bettie Crawford is said to have died in Kentucky. 

VIII. Samuel Crawford, the eighth child. Nothing is known of him, 


except what we find in his will, if, indeed, he was the Samuel Crawford 
whose will was admitted to record at July court, 1795. It speaks of 
testator's wife Elizabeth and son William ; authorizes his brother James 
to sell land " in Cumberland " ; directs his txecutors to sell a lot in 
"Nashville, in Cumberland"; and appoints William McPheeters, John 
Crawford and testator's widow, executors. The son William is said to 
have gone to Tennessee. 

IX. Robert Crawford is said to have married a daughter of his uncle 
Patrick. .The will of a person of this name was proved and admitted 
to record, October 29, 1810. The testator mentions his wife, Sarah, and 
his children, George, Elizabeth, Hugh, James, Jane, Robert, William 
and John. John and William Poage were appointed executors. Noth- 
ing more can be ascertained in reference to this family. It is strange 
that they should have disappeared from the county, " leaving no rack " 

X. Martha Crawford married Alexander Craig of the Little Calf Pas- 
ture, Augusta county. All her children went West, except the late 
"Robert Craig, who died at his home near Craigsville, in 1872. 

XI. Mary Crawford died unmarried at the home of her sister, Mrs. 

Patrick Crawford lived on the farm lying on Middle river, east of 
the macadamized turnpike, now owned by his descendant, John H. 
Crawford. His wife was Sally Wilson. They had nine children — four 
sons and five daughters. In 1756, Patrick Crawford was a member of 
Captain James Allen's company of militia, and at a court-martial held 
September 2, 1757, he was fined for not appearing at a general muster. 
His will was proved in the county court, December 18, 1787, and his 
personal estate, including slaves, amounted to ^^2,462, 3s, 7d, about 

In regard to several of his daughters, much confusion and uncertainty 
exists. Elizabeth, the oldest child, and wife of Alexander Robertson, 
is said to have been born October 18, 1751, although the Rev. John 
Craig baptized Martha, daughter of Patrick Crawford, in November, 
1748. The probability is that this child, Martha, died in infancy, and 
that another born later was called by the same name. The next daugh- 
ter, Margaret, or Peggy, was the first wife of her cousin, John Crawford, 
of North Mountain. One daughter is said to have married a McChes- 
ney — her father refers in his will to his grandson, George McChesney. 
Another daughter, Sarah, married Robert Crawford. Martha, born 
May 10, 1761, was the second wife of Colonel Andrew Anderson, Mary, 
or Polly, the youngest daughter, was the wife of James Crawford, who 
will be mentioned hereafter. 

The sons of Patrick and Sally Crawford were : 

I. George Crawford, to whom hts father left the plantation on which 
he resided. He was born October i, 1754, and married Nancy Winter. 
Mrs. Crawford's parents were William and Ann Boone Winter, the latter 
an aunt of Daniel Boone. Elizabeth Winter, a sister of Mrs. Crawford, 


married Abraham Lincoln, the grandfather of President Lincoln; and 
Hannah Winter, another sister, married Henry Miller, the founder of 
Miller's Iron Works, on Mossy creek. Augusta county. (See page 40). 
It may be mentioned that the grandfather of President Lincoln, then 
living in the part of Augusta county which is now Rockingham, at- 
tended a court-martial at Staunton, March 13, 1776, as captain of a 
militia company. His name was written "Abraham Linkhorn." 

Ail the children of George and Nancy Crawford were daughters, viz: 
I. Nancy, wife of John Miller ; 2. Hannah, wifeof Harry Miller; 3. Sally, 
second wife of James Bell, died childless ; 4. Jane, first wife of Franklin 
McCue ; 5. Martha, wife of Peter Hanger ; 6. Polly, wife of James Bour- 
land ; 7. Rebecca, died unmarried ; and 8. Margaret, wife of James 
Walker, died childless. 

II. John Crawford, second son of Patrick and Sally, and known as 
Major John Crawford, was born March 29, 1764. His wife was Rebecca 
Allen, daughter of Captain James Allen (see " The Aliens,") and his chil- 
dren were: i. Elizabeth, wife of Captain William Ingles; 2. Sally, wife 
of John Hyde; 3. Margaret, first wife of Cyrus Hyde; 4. James, known 
as Major James Crawford, married Cynthia McClung, of Greenbrier, 
whose son, John H., owns the Patrick Crawford farm ; 5. John, married 
Harriet McClung, of Greenbrier; 6. George W., died unmarried; 7. 
Ann, or Nancy, second wife of Franklin McCue; 8. Mary, wife of Dr. 
Edward G. Moorman ; and 9. Rebecca, wife of Stuart McClung, of 

III. William Crawford, son of Patrick and Sally, was born August 6, 
1767. His wife was Nancy Smith. (See "The Smiths.") He lived in 
Rockingham, and was the father of the late Benjamin Crawford, of 
Staunton, William Crawford, of Fort Defiance, and others. 

IV. James Crawford, twin brother of William, died unmarried. 

The James Crawford, who married Mary, daughter of Patrick Craw- 
ford, died in 1798, leaving to survive him his widow and six children. 
A seventh child was born after her father's death. His sons were 
George, William, James and John; and his daughters, Sarah, Elizabeth 
and Polly. George died unmarried and under age; William also died 
unmarried, as did James, who was known as "Jocky Jim Crawford"; 
John married Margaret Bell, daughter of Major William Bell, and died 
in 1819. without issue; Sarah Crawford married Charles McClung, 
Elizabeth married Colonel Samuel McClung. and Polly (the posthumous 
child) was the first wife of John Allen. (See " The Aliens.") 

We have found it impossible to obtain any satisfactory account of the 
parentage of the late Colonel James Crawford, or of his relationship 
with the Patrick Crawford family. His father, said to have been named 
John, died while a young man, leaving two children — James and Samuel. 
Tliese boys were reared by a paternal uncle called " Robin," who re- 
moved to Kentucky. James Crawford, recently mentioned, who died 
in 1798, is said to have been a brother of John and Robin. Colonel 
Crawford was a lawyer in Staunton for many years. After retiring from 


the bar to his farm, he was an efficient justice of the peace, president 
of the county court, etc., etc. His first wife was a sister of Erasmus 
Stribhng, and his second, the widow of his cousin, John Crawford. Cap- 
tain Samuel Crawford, brother of James, was the Lieutenant Crawford 
of the war of 1812. (See page 233.) His wife was a daughter of the 
Rev. William Wilson. 


Three or more persons named Bell, not at all related, as far as 
known, were among the early settlers of Augusta county. Two of 
these, and perhaps three, were named James. A James Bell was a 
member of the first County Court. 

To distinguish between the families, we shall designate them by the 
respective neighborhoods in which they lived — North Mountain, Stone 
Church, and Long Glade. 

North Mountain Betls. — The first of this family in the county was 
James Bell, who located on a tract of land one mile and a half east of 
Buffalo Gap, on a part of which his descendant, John Christian, lives at 
present (1888). It was his dwelling that was raided by Indians, as 
related on page 30. His children were three sons, James, Samuel and 
Francis, and three daughters, Ann, Betty and Mary. 

I. James Bell, son of James, removed to Kentucky and located near 
Lexington. He was a near neighbor of Henry Clay, who consequently 
visited the Bells of Buffalo Gap several times on his trips to and from 

II. Samuel, known for many years before his death as Major Bell. 
He was a soldier in the Revolution, while quite young, and, witii many 
of his countymen, was with Morgan at the Cowpens. He lived on the 
farm recently owned by his son, Samuel H. Bell, and now by Archibald 
A. Sproul, a short distance west of Swoope's Depot. 

Major Bell was married three times. His first wife was Nancy, 
daughter of James Bell, of Long Glade, and her children were : i. 
Sarah, wife of Robert Christian ; 2. James, who was a lieutenant in the 
war of 1812, and known for many years as Captain James Bell ; and 
3. Nancy, wife of John Brownlee, of the Greenville neighborhood. 

The second wife of Major Bell was a Miss Cunningham, who had one 
child, a daughter, who died young. 

The third wife was Rebecca Hays, mother of Samuel H. Bell, de- 
ceased, and Francis Bell, now of Pulaski county. 

III. Francis Bell, son of James, married Sally, daughter of James 
Bell, of Long Glade, who had only one child, a son named James, who 
died in his youth. 

IV. Ann Bell, wife of Francis Gardiner, a soldier of the Revolution. 


Their children were the late |ames and Samuel Gardiner, Mrs. Henry 
Sterrett, Mrs. Robert Wright, and others. 

V. Bettv, the next daughter, was the wife of Benjamin Brown, and 
mother of Major Joseph Brown, a prominent citizen of the county for 
many years, who removed to Illinois in 1837, and afterwards to Mis- 
souri. Major Brown's wife was a daughter of Jacob Swoope, the old 
merchant and Congressman. 

VI. Mary, third daughter of James Bell, died unmarried.' 

The Stone Church Bells. — There is some uncertainty in regard to the 
name of the ancestor of this family. It was probably Joseph, as a Jo- 
seph Bell purchased a lot in Staunton, in 1747, (see page 39). All that is 
certainly known of him is, that he was a married man and had children, 
one of whom was named Joseph, and that he and his wife were mur- 
dered. On a certain Sunday, the year not known, the children of the 
family went to church, and upon returning home found that their parents 
had been killed in their dwelling. Two white "indentured servants," a 
man and a woman, who had disappeared and were never heard of, were 
supposed to have perpetrated the deed. 

Joseph Bell, son of the former, was born in Augusta, May 25, 1742, 
and died in 1823. His wife was Elizabeth Henderson. Their residence 
was on the present macadamized turnpike, about four miles north of 

The children of Joseph and Elizabeth Bell, who attained maturity, 
were three sons and two daughters. One of the daughters was the wife 
of the senior John Wayt, and the other the wife of Dr. John Johnston. 
(See pages 198 and 200). 

I. William Bell, son of Joseph, known as Major Bell, was for many 
years County Surveyor of Augusta. His wife was Margaret, daughter of 
Captain James Allen (see "The Aliens "). Their only son was the late 
William J. D. Bell. Their daughters were : i. Elizabeth Allen, wife of 
Joseph D. Keyser, of Alleghany county; 2. Susan, wife of James Craig, 
of Mount Meridian, Augusta; 3. Mary, wife of Addison Hyde ; 4. Mar- 
garet A., who married, first, John Crawford (he dying childless), and, 
secondly. Colonel James Crawford ; 5. Nancy, wife of Zachariah McChes- 
ney; 6. ."^arah, second wife of John Wayt, Junior; 7. Rebecca, wife of 
Benjamin T. Reid ; S.Julia, wife of Alexander W. Arbuckle of Green- 
brier; and, 9. Jane, wife of Rev. John A. Van Lear. 

II. James Bell, son of Joseph, was born in 1772. and died in 1856. He 
was long the senior Justice of the Peace in Augusta (see page 256) His 
first wife was Sarah, daughter of Captain James Allen, whose ciiildren, 
leaving posterity, were the late Colonel William A. Bell, and Sarah, first 
wife of John Wayt, Junior. The last wife of James Bell was Margaret 
Craig, and her\:hildren were, John J., David S., J. Wayt, and Henderson 
M. Bell, Mrs. Jane Arbuckle, of Greenbrier, Mrs. Bettie Kinney, and 
Mrs. Margaret Young, of Staunton. 

III. Joseph Bell, Junior, the third son of Joseph, Senior, resided during 


most of his life in Rockbridge county, near Gosiien. His wife was a 
daughter of Alexander Nelson (see page 225), and Nelson Bell, of Rock- 
bridge, and Johnston E. Bell, of Greenbrier, are two of his sons. 

The Bells of Long G/ade—]a.m&s Bell came from Ireland and settled 
on Long Glade, Augusta, about 1740. His wife was Agnes Hogshead. 
He is said to have been a school teacher, and also a surveyor and 
scrivener. He probably was the James Bell who was one of the first 
county magistrates in 1745. His children were : 

I. John Bell married ttiree times, successively. His first wife, a widow 
Young, and his second, Esther Gamble (sister of Colonel Robert Gam- 
ble), had no children. His third wife. Elizabeth Griffith, had four sons 
and two daughters. He served two " tours " during the Revolution. 

The children of John and Elizabeth were: i. William, and 2. Abel 
(both of whom went to Illinois); 3. James R. Bell, who married Mary 
J. Brownlee. He served in the Confederate army, Fifth Virginia regi- 
ment. Was taken sick at Swift Run Gap in 1862, and died in a short 
time. His son, Brownlee Bell, a member of Lilly's company, Twenty- 
fifth regiment, was taken prisoner, and died at Fort Delaware in 1863. 
Three daughters of James R. Bell survive. 4. Francis, died young, 
unmarried. 5. Mrs. Rebecca Curry, of Greenbrier. 6. Mrs. Nancy 
Whitmore, of Augusta. 

II. William Bell, son of James and Agnes, never married. Killed in 
battle during the Revolution. 

III. Francis Bell, married Polly Ervin. No children. 

IV. David Bell was in the military service during the war of 1812, and 
was called Captain Bell. His wife was a Miss Christian. He had five 
children, two of whom died young. The other three were — 

1. James Bell married Sarah Coyner, and had seven sons, six of 
whom served in the Confederate army during the war of i86i-'5, viz.: 
(i) Alexander, died of disease contracted in the army; (2) Addison, 
killed at Chancellorsville, 1863; (3) Luther, died of disease contracted 
in the army, 1862; (4) William, severely wounded at Kernstown, March, 
1862, practicing medicine in Fauquier; (5) Daniel, wounded at Gettys- 
burg, still survives; (6) Frank, wounded during war, survives. The 
first, second, fifth and sixth were members of Company C, Fifth Vir- 
ginia regiment, " Stonewall brigade " ; the third was a member of the 
Fifty-second regiment, and the fourth of the " Liberty Hall " company, 
Fourth regiment. Samuel, the seventh son of James and Sarah Bell, 
was not in the army, being quite young. 

2. John Bell, son of David, married Sophia Ervin, and had seven sons 
and two daughters, viz: (i) David, Company C, Fifth regiment, died in 
military hospital at Lynchburg, June 24, 1863; (2) Elisha, member of 
Carpenter's Battery, wounded at Antietam, lives near F^-edericksburg; 
(3) William, Company C, Fifth regiment, wounded at Cedar Creek, 1864, 
survives; (4) Alexander, Company C, Fifth regiment, taken prisoner at 
Antietam, and died at Fort Delaware, September 24, 1863 ; (5) Hendren, 


Company C, Fifth regiment, severely wounded at Gettysburg, and after- 
wards courier for General John B. Gordon, lives in Augusta; (6) John, 
practicing medicine in Chicago; (7) Samuel, practicing medicine on 
Long Glade, Augusta; (8) Mary, married George H. Ervin ; (9) Marga- 
ret, not married. 
3. Betsy, daughter of David Bell, married Bethuel Herring. 

V. James Bell, son of James and Agnes, went to Kentucky and died 

VI. Thomas Bell, son of James and Agnes, married Rebecca Robert- 
son, of Botetourt. He inherited his father's homestead, the present 
Dudley farm, and died in 1854, aged eighty-two years. His children 
were — 

I.James, married Annie Blair, and had seven children, viz: (i) 
Thpmas M., Company C, Fifth regiment, mortally wounded at Chan- 
cellorsville, May 3, 1863; (2) James A., Company C, Fifth regiment, 
severely wounded at Kernstown and died in consequence. The remain- 
ing children of James and Annie Bell are daughters, all single. 

2. Alexander R. Bell, son of Thomas and Rebecca, married Clara 
Hogshead, and had two sons and five daughters. His son, Thomas A., 
Fifth regiment, killed at Spotsylvania Courthouse in 1864, His son, 
James F., and three daughters survive. One of the daughters is the 
wife of Samuel Bell, son of Samuel, and another the wife of Moses 
Hutton, of Hardy county. 

3. Samuel Bell, son of Thomas and Rebecca, married Sarah Eidson, 
and had seven children. His son, Thomas P., sergeant of Company C, 
Fifth regiment, was mortally wounded at Hatcher's Creek, Dinwiddie 
county, February, 1865. Another son, John V., served in Fitz. Lee's 
cavalry. Four sons and one daughter survive. 

VIL Nancy Bell, daughter of James and Agnes, was the first wife of 
Major Samuel Bell, of North Mountain. 

VIIL Sally Bell, daughter of James and Agnes, was the wife of 
Francis Bell, of North Mountain 

Of the descendants of James and Agnes Bell, eighteen were soldiers 
in the Confederate army during the war of i86i-'5 ; five were killed in 
battle or died of wounds, and six died of disease contracted in the 


Allusion is made on page 126 to the capture by Indians of "one of 
the Trimbles" near the present village of Churchville ; and on page 
191 the captur.e of Mrs. Estill is referred to. Since the publication of 
the Annals, the writer has obtained much information in regard to the 
capture of the persons named, and the circumstances are too interesting 
to be omitted here. 


Mrs. Estill and young Trimble, her half-brother, afterwards Captain 
James Trimble, were captured at the same time, but in what year was 
until recently unknown. One writer puts the date as 1752; another, 
1758; a third, 1770, and a fourth, 1778. The incident occurred, how- 
ever, in 1764, during the last Indian raid into the county, and about the 
time of the second Kerr's Creek massacre. All accounts agree in the 
statement that John Trimble, the father of James and step-father of 
Mrs. Estill, was killed at the time of the capture, and the records of 
the county show that his death occurred in the fall of 1764. He lived 
on Middle river, two miles from Churchville, five from Buffalo Gap, and 
seven from Staunton, or thereabouts; 

Besides the date of this occurrence, there is much diversity of state- 
ment in regard to many of the circumstances. The memoir of Mrs. 
Jane Trimble, wife of Captain James Trimble, written by her grandson, 
the Rev. Joseph M. Trimble, D. D., a minister of the Methodist Church, 
gives the most detailed account of the affair which we have seen. The 
author states that a white man named Dickinson, who had fled from 
Virginia to escape punishment for crime, entered the Valley at the 
head of thirty Indians, and encouraged them in their cruel work. 
They raided the dwelling of John Trimble, and killed him as he was 
going out in the morning to plow. James, then a boy about eight 
years old, his half sister, Mrs. Estill, and a negro boy were taken 
prisoners. Mr. Estill, according to this account, was wounded, but 
escaped. Where Mrs. Trimble and other members of the family were 
at the time, or how they escaped, is not stated. A strong stone house 
stood then, as now, on the opposite side of Middle river, within a mile 
of Trimble's, and possibly some of the family had taken refuge there. 
It was called a fort, and is known as the "Old Keller House." The 
Indians must have passed this house in coming from Ale.xander Craw- 
ford's to John Trimble's. The Trimble dwelling was stripped by the 
Indians of its most valuable contents, and then burned. Four horses 
were taken and loaded with the plunder. The Indians, with their 
prisoners and horses, retreated to a cave in the North Mountain, where 
they had arranged to meet two other divisions of their party. They 
traveled all night and met their comrades in the morning, who had 
secured prisoners and plunder in other bettlements. The united bands 
prosecuted their retreat with great rapidity for five days and nights. 

The statement that Trimble was going out to plow when the Indians 
assailed him is a local tradition. 

The morning after the murder of John Trimble, Captain George 
Moffett, his step-son, and the brother of Mrs. Estill, was in pursuit of 
the enemy, with twenty-five men collected during the previous night. 
Tht Indians had fifteen hours' start, but Moffett and his party rapidly 
gained on them. The fact that the pursuers moved more rapidly than 
the pursued was a well known one in Indian warfare, the latter being 
generally encumbered and losing time in the effort to conceal their 
trail. In the morning of the fifth day, the whites in front of their party 


discovered the Indians on a spur of the Alleghany Mountain, and upon 
a consultation it was concluded to pause in the pursuit and make an 
attack after dark. 

The Indians had stopped at a spring near the foot of the mountain. 
Their food was exhausted, and Dickinson had gone in search of game. 
MofTett's party were within a mile of the savages, and stealthily draw- 
ing nearer, when they were startled by the report of a gun. Supposing 
they had been discovered, the whites dropped their knapsacks and 
started in a run towards the Indians. They had gone only a few hun- 
dred yards when a wounded deer bounded across their path. One of 
the men struck the animal in its face with his hat, which caused it to 
turn and run back. Another report of a gun and a whoop, satisfied the 
whites that one of the Indian party had killed the deer, and that the 
whoop was a call for help to carry it into camp. An Indian on horse- 
back was immediately seen approaching at a rapid pace. The whites, 
concealed in tall grass, were not discovered by him till he was in the 
midst of them ; and they dispatched him in an instant, before his com- 
panions in camp were aware of their approach. 

Some of the prisoners were tied with tugs, while the women and boys 
were unconfined. Mrs. Estill was sitting on a log sewing ruffles on a 
shirt of her husband, at the bidding of the Indian who claimed her as 
his prize. James Trimble was at the spring getting water. The In- 
dians had barely time to get their guns before the whites were upon 
them. At first, most of the startled prisoners ran some distance, and, 
becoming mingled with the Indians, it was impossible for the rescuers 
to fire; but discovering their mistake, they turned and ran to their 
friends. Then the firing began on both sides. The negro boy was shot, 
and from the blood discovered on the trail of the Hying Indians, it was 
evident that several of them were wounded. 

Moffett and his party desisted from the pursuit, and collecting the 
stolen property and removing to a distance, spent the night. Early the 
next morning they began their homeward journey. The Indians, how- 
ever, rallied, and getting ahead of the whites sought to ambush them 
in a narrow pass. In this they failed, as also in another attempt of the 
same kind, in a laurel thicket. They then fell to the rear and followed 
the whites for several days; but being foiled in all their schemes, they 
turned off to an unprotected settlement, which was assailed in their 
usual manner. The Augusta men reached home unhurt, except one 
who was wounded in the mountain pass, and was carried on a litter. 
The loss of the Indians was six killed and several badly wounded. 

Such is the account given in the memoir of Mrs. Trimble. 

In Collins's History of Kentucky (volume II, page 767), we find a 
sketch of Captain James Trimble, which gives a different version of the 
affair. The writer of this account states that the prisoners were captured 
by a party of nine Indians, led by a half-breed named Dickson ; that 
immediately after the capture, James Trimble was adopted as a son by 
Dickson; that Captain Moffett raised a party of eighteen men, and 


overtook the Indians near the present Whit^ulphur Springs ; and that 
at the first fire all the Indians were killed, except Dickson, who escaped. 

The late John A. Trimble, of Ohio, a son of Captain James Trimble, 
in one of his numerous and interesting communications to the Hillsboro 
Gazette, gave a third account of the affair. Describing a trip he made 
on horseback from Mossy creek, in Augusta county, to his home in 
Ohio, probably in 1827, Mr. Trimble said: 

" I was soon in the wild pass of the North Mountain, and approaching 
Buffalo Gap, in the vicinity of the early home of my father, when I over- 
took a venerable old gentleman on horseback, who gave me his name, 
William Kincaid, and inquired my name and residence. He said the 
name was familiar; he had known a Captain James Trimble who was 
a native of Augusta. When informed that he was my father, the old 
gentlemen was startled; he stopped his horse and shook hands most 
cordially. ' Is it possible ! ' he exclaimed. 'Why, I was a young man 
of eighteen when your father was a prisoner, with his sister, young Mrs. 
Edmonson, afterwards Estill, and I was one of the twelve men who 
went with Colonel George Moffett in pursuit, and rescued the prisoners 
away across the AUeghanies. Why, it seems as fresh to my memory as 
of yesterday, and we are now within a few miles of where your grand- 
father was killed and his house pillaged by Dickson and his ferocious 
band of Shawnees. But we had our revenge, and Dickson, their leader, 
with a boy, were the only ones who escaped from our rifles, for we took 
them completely by surprise, feasting and sleeping around their camp- 
fire.' " Mr. Kincaid said that ''at one time Colonel Moffett seemed dis- 
couraged, having lost the trail, when, fortunately, one of the men found 
the blue-worsted garter of Mrs. Edmonson hanging on a bush, where 
she had placed it while traveling at night." 

Kincaid and James Trimble were both members of Captain George 
Mathews's company at Point Pleasant, in 1774. 

We may add that a family of " Edmistons " lived in the county as 
early as 1746, but we have no information other than the above that 
Kitty Moffett was the widow of one of them when she married Benja- 
min Estill. 

We have still another account of the killing of John Trimble and 
capture of his son and step-daughter, embraced in a letter written by 
Mr. John A. Trimble, March 28, 1843, a copy of which is in the hands of 
Judge John H. McCue, of Staunton. 

In this letter Mr. Trimble gives the date as 1770, an error of six years, 
his grandfather having been killed in 1764. He says his father, James 
Trimble, and a negro boy named Adam, while plowing corn, were sur- 
prised by a party of Indians and made prisoners. [It is probable that 
the negro was plowing/cr wheat, as James Trimble was too young at 
the time to hold the plow, being only eight years old, and the season 
(October) was too late for corn.] The alarm was given at the house by 
the horses running off, and, suspecting the cause, the father, John Trim- 
ble, proceeded with his gun to reconnoitre. The Indians, having secured 


the prisoners and left them in charge of several lads, started to the 
house. On the way they encountered John Trimble in a strip of woods, 
and shot and scalped him. His wife escaped from the dwelling and 
concealed herself near enough to witness the plundering and burning 
of the premises. Mrs. Estill (so called here by Mr. Trmible) was 
enceinte, and being unable to fly was made prisoner. Nothing is said 
in reference to Mr. Estill. 

While this was going on, the young Indians were amusing themselves 
by throwing their tomahawks at the tree to which James Trimble was 
tied, often just missing his head. 

The account given by Mr. Trimble, in this letter, of the retreat of the 
Indians, the pursuit by Captain Moffett, and the rescue of the prisoners, 
is substantially the same as that given by the Rev. Dr. Trimble. He, 
however, says nothing about ''a cave in the North Mountain," or any 
other parties of Indians, and says the number of men with Moffett was 
fifteen or twenty. The number of Indians he puts at eight or nine. 

Dickson is said to have been a renegade half-blood Indian, who was 
well-known to the white settlers, among whom he had lived for several 
years. When hostilities broke out he joined a band of Shawnees, and 
became a formidable leader. He had often been at John Trimble's 
house, and after scalping Trimble, exhibited the trophy to the boy 
James, saying: "Jim, here's the old man's scalp. Do you know it? If 
you stay with me, I will make a good Indian of you ; but if you try to 
run off, I will have your scalp." He treated Mrs. Estill with respect, 
walking constantly by her side as she rode on a horse through the 
passes of the mountains. Mrs. Estill's first child was born a few weeks 
after her return. 

The negro boy Adam was a native African of recent importation, and 
spoke but little English. Mr. Trimble often heard him, in his old age, 
relate the incidents of his captivity. During the retreat of the Indians, 
Adam one day stirred up a "yellow jacket's nest," just as the sparsely- 
clad savages were filing along, and some of them were assailed and 
stung by the insects. This so pleased the simple-minded negro that he 
was about to repeat the act, when the Indian boys administered to him 
a sound beating. 

Just before the arrival of the whites at the Indian camp, Dickson sent 
James Trimble to the spring for water, which, being somewhat muddy 
when presented, was thrown in the face of the boy, who was threatened 
with the tomahawk, and ordered to bring another supply. He returned 
to the spring, and while waiting for the water to clear was startled by 
the report of rifles. Surmising that rescuers were at hand, he ran in 
the direction of the sound and placed himself among his friends. 

At the moment of the firing, Dickson was standing by Mrs. Estill, 
leaning on his gun, and giving directions about ruffling a shirt she was 
making for him. She sprang to her feet and ran towards the whites, 
taking the precaution to snatch up a tin vessel and cover her head with 
it. Dickson pursued her, and hurling his tomahawk, knocked the vessel 


off without injury to her person. He almost immediately confronted 
Captain Moffett, at whom he fired, but missed, and then turned and 
fled, making good his escape. Moffett's gun was empty. 

Adam had concealed himself during the firing behind a tree, and 
being mistaken for an Indian was shot at by one of the white men and 
wounded slightly in the arm. 

Mr. Trimble states that, except Dickson, all the Indians fell at the 
first fire, either killed or mortally wounded. Dickson followed the 
whites on their return, and fired upon and wounded one of them, 
named Russell, who was carried home on a litter. Russell encountered 
Dickson at the battle of Point Pleasant, and killed him in a hand-to- 
hand conflict. 

It is said that the whole number of prisoners carried off by the 
Indians and rescued as described was six or eight; but who they were, 
besides those mentioned, is not stated. 


Thomas Gardiner, Jr., lived on a farm lying on Dry Branch, Augusta 
county, two and a half miles northeast of Buffalo Gap, where John A. 
Lightner now lives. According to tradition, he and his mother were 
killed by Indians, but exactly when is not known. His wife, Rebecca, 
qualified as administratrix of his estate, June 19, 1764, and it is pre- 
sumed that his death occurred a short time before that date. Tradition 
states that, on a Sunday evening, he went out to see after a cow and 
calf, and was killed at the spring, within a hundred yards of his dwell- 
ing. No one knows by what means his wife and children escaped, nor 
where his mother was when killed. He had two sons, one of whom, 
Samuel, was the ancestor of the Mint Spring Gardiners. The other, 
Francis, was a soldier of the Revolution, who died July 26, 1842, 
father of the late James and Samuel Gardiner and others. 

Thomas Gardiner was a near neighbor of Alexander Crawford, who 
also was killed by Indians, as related elsewhere in this Supplement. 
[See "The Crawfords."] Their dwellings were about two miles apart. 
Gardiner was killed before June 19, 1764, as stated, and possibly Craw- 
ford's death occurred at the same time. If the Indians came through 
Buffalo Gap, they must have passed Crawford's dwelling to reach 
Gardiner's, and it would seem unaccountable that the one should be 
taken and the other left. But the proceedings of Indians were often 
as eccentric as the devastations of a spring frost, which cuts down one 
stalk of corn and passes over another. All we know certainly in 
regard to Crawford's latter days is, that he was alive February 18, 1762, 
when he became one of the securities of Thomas Gardiner, Jr., in a 
guardian's bond ; and that he was dead by November court, 1764, 


when his administrator qualified. He owned an unusual amount of 
personal property, and in the ordinary course of affairs his administra- 
tor would qualify as soon as possible after his death. It is, therefore, 
probable that he was a victim of the Indian raid of October, 1764. 

We have no information of any Indian raid into the county in the 
spring, or early summer, of 1764, except the fact of the Gardiner mas- 
sacre, just mentioned. This massacre may have been perpetrated by 
a single Indian, who penetrated by himself into the settlement. It is 
not said, however, that even one Indian was seen by a white man at 
that time, and a white ruffian may have committed the murders for the 
sake of plunder. An old story says that Gardiner had money buried 
in an iron pot, which his descendants could never find. Quite recently 
an empty ancient pot was found on the premises, having been washed 
out by a freshet, and it is thought to give color to the story. 

Some Curious Orders of Court. — The November term, 1764, of 
the County Court of Augusta was a very busy one. It began on the 
2oth and continued five days. The proceedings cover seventy-six folio 
pages. At this term, Silas Hart qualified as high sheriff, and Dabney 
Carr, of Albemarle, as attorney-at-law. The estates of John Trimble 
and Alexander Crawford, both of whom had been killed by Indians in 
October preceding, were committed to their respective administrators. 
William Fleming, Sampson Mathews, George Skillern, Alexander Mc- 
Clanahan and Benjamin Estill were recommended for appointment as 
justices of the peace. 

Among the orders we find the following : " Jacob Peterson having pro- 
duced a certificate of his having received the Sacrament, and having 
taken the usual oaths to his Majesty's person and government, sub- 
scribed the abjuration oath and test, which is, on his motion, ordered 
to be certified, in order to his obtaining Letters of Naturalization." 

The clerk who wrote the orders sometimes set the rules of grammar 
and spelling at defiance, as witness the following, which we copy liter- 
ally : 

" On complaint of Patrick Lacey, setting forth that his master, William 
Snoden, doth not provide cloaths for him, nor will Imploy him as his 
servant: It is ordered that the said Snoden be summoned to appear 
here the next Court, to answer the said complaint ; and it is further or- 
dered that the Church-wardens provide him Necessary Cloaths and that 
tney in the meantime hire him out to such persons that may think proper 
to Imploy him." 

Patrick was no doubt a white " indented servant " (see page 17). His 
complaint came up at March court, 1765, and was dismissed, very likely 
to the relief of the master, who thus escaped being clothed and hired 
out by the church-wardens, as the order required he should be. 

Another order of November term, 1764, is equally curious : " Ordered 


that the church- warHens of Augusta Parish bind Michael Eagin of the 
age of nine years in September last, son of Patrick Eagin, to John Pat- 
rick, the father of the said Michael having runaway according to law." 


The history of the expulsion of the Acadian French from Nova 
Scotia is one of the darkest pages in the annals of Great Britain. The 
ancestors of these people settled in the province before the Pilgrim 
Fathers landed on Plymouth Rock. They occupied a beautiful and 
fertile country, and in course of time farmhouses and villages sprang 
up over the country. By the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, the province 
was ceded to Great Britain, and the French population submitted to 
the transfer without opposition. They, however, for some years, re- 
fused to swear allegiance to the new Government. When war again 
arose between England and France, the French of Nova Scotia were 
regarded with distrust by their British rulers, and it was determined to 
expel them from the province. Their villages were laid waste, and the 
country was reduced to a solitude. Seven thousand men, women and 
children were driven on board ships, and scattered among the English 
colonies from New Hampshire to Georgia. In 1755, eleven hundred 
and forty of these "French Neutrals," as they were called, were landed 
at Hampton, in Virginia, without means of support, or previous notice 
of their coming. Governor Dinwiddie and his Council maintained 
them at the public expense for four months, but the opposition on the 
part of the people to their remaining in the colony was universal. No 
public land remained in lower Virginia upon which to settle them, and 
west of the Blue Ridge the French and Indians were waging a ruthless 
war upon the frontier settlers, rendering it unsafe to send them to that 
region. The Governor described them in one of his numerous letters 
as "bigoted Papists, lazy, and of a contentious behavior." Finally, 
when the General Assembly met, it was determined by that body to 
ship the unfortunate people to England, and this was done at a cost to 
the colony of ;^5,ooo. 

On pages 46, 82 and 84 mention is made of Alexander McNutt as a 
resident of Augusta county. He is supposed to have been in confidential 
relations with Governor Dinwiddie, to whom (and not to Governor Fau- 
quier) he delivered his account of the Sandy Creek Expedition of 1756. 
After his affray in Staunton with Andrew Lewis, he went to England, 
and, being recommended by the Governor of Virginia, was admitted 
to an audience by the King. Ever afterwards he wore the prescribed 
court dress. The French having been driven out of Nova Scotia as 
related, McNutt received from the Government grants of extensive 


tracts of land in that province upon condition of introducing other 
settlers. He accordingly brought over many people from the north of 
Ireland, including persons of his own name, and a sister, who married 
a Mr. VV^eir. Admiral Cochrane, of the British navy, is believed to be 
a descendant of Mrs. Weir, and other of her descendants are now living 
in Nova Scotia. 

A letter from Halifax, Nova Scotia, published in the Boston Gazette 
of October 26, 1761, says : " Last Friday arrived here the ship Hopewell, 
of Londonderrv, by which came upwards of two hundred persons for 
the settlement of this Province, with Colonel Alexander McNutt. who, 
we are informed, has contracted for five thousand bushels of wheat, 
five thousand bushels of potatoes, etc., etc., for the use of the Irish 
settlers." In November, 1762, McNutt arrived with one hundred and 
seventy settlers, and at different times with many more. The last men- 
tion of him in the arcliives of the Province is in 1769, wlien the Attor- 
ney-General complained that he had parceled out certain lands without 

While living in Nova Scotia, in 1761, McNutt executed a power of 
attorney, authorizing his brother, John, to sell and convey his real estate. 
In pursuance of tiiis instrument, John McNutt, on August 16, 1785, con- 
veyed to Thomas Smith, in consideration of £\\o, lot No. 10 in Staun- 
ton, which was purchased by Alexander in 1750 for ^3, as stated on page 
46. Buildings afterwards erected on tlie lot were long known as the 
" Bell Tavern." Captain Thomas Smith was the father in-law of Michael 
Garber, who came into possession of the property and owned it for 
many years. 

Alexander McNutt seems to have returned to Nova Scotia after the 
Revolution, as in the deed of 17S5 he is described as "late of Augusta 
county, now of Halifax, Nova Scotia." But he did not remain there 
long. He appears to have been a visionary man, and in his latter years, 
at least somewhat of a religious enthusiast. While living in Nova 
Scotia, he attempted to found there a settlement to be called "New 
Jerusalem." It is presumed that his lands in that Province were confis- 
cated when he came away and joined the American "rebels"; but in 
1796 he undertook to convey by deed 100,000 acres in Nova Scotia to 
the Synod of Virginia, in trust for the benefit of Liberty Hall Academy, 
in Rockbridge, among other purposes "for the support of public lec- 
tures in said seminary aimually, on man's state by nature and his recov- 
ery by free and unmerited grace through Christ Jesus, and against oppo- 
site errors." Possibly finding that this deed would not do, he executed 
another the next year directly to the trustees of Liberty Hall, for the 
same uses. The .second deed was witnessed by Andrew Alexander, 
Conrad Speece and Archibald Alexander. It is unnecessary to say that 
Liberty Hall did not gft the land. 

McNutt never married, and left no posterity His old-fashioned dress 
sword was preserved by his collateral descendant, Alexander McNutt 
Glasgow, of Rockbridge ; but at the time of " Hunter's Raid," in 1864, 


the silver-mounted scabbard was carried off, leaving only the naked 

John McNutt, a brother of Alexander, settled on North river, Rock- 
bridge. His wife was Catherine Anderson, a great-aunt of Judge 
Francis T. Anderson. One of his sons, Alexander, was the father of 
Governor Alexander G. McNutt, of Mississippi, and grandfather of 
General Frank Paxton and General Albert G. Jenkins. 

A daughter of John McNutt married, first, Lieutenant McCorkle, who 
was mortally wounded at the battle of the Cowpens, the grandfather of 
the Rev. Alexander B. McCorkle, and great-grandfather of Thomas 
McCorkle, Esq. Her second husband was Arthur Glasgow, grand- 
father of William A. Glasgow, Esq.. and Colonel J. K. Edmondson. To 
the former we are indebted for most of the facts here given. 


Robert Cunningham, a native of north Ireland, settled on a farm 
called Rock Spring, in Augusta count|, about the year 1735. He was 
one of the first set of justices of the peace appointed in 1745, and after- 
ward, it is said, a member of the House of Burgesses. His wife was a 
widow Hamilton, and the mother of several children at the time of her 
second marriage. One of her daughters, Mary Hamilton, married 
David Campbell, and was the mother of John and Arthur Campbell, and 
others. (See "The Campbells.") Two of the daughters of Robert 
Cunningham also married Campbells. He had no son. His daughter, 
Martha, about the year 1750, married Walter Davis, who became the 
owner of Rock Spring farm. Mr. Davis never held civil office, but was 
an elder of Tinkling Spring church and a man of much influence. His 
daughter, Margaret, married John Smith, and was the mother of Judge 
Daniel Smith, of Rockingham. His son, William Davis, born in 1765, 
married Annie Caldwell, and died about 1851, aged eighty-six. He was 
a man of high standing in the community, a justice of the peace, high 
sheriff, etc. Walter Davis, Jr., son of William, born in 1791, was for 
many years one of the two commissioners of the revenue m Augusta 
county, and noted for his faithful and intelligent discharge of the duties 
of his office. His wife was Rebecca Van Lear. William C. Davis, a 
brother of Walter Davis, Jr., removed to Missouri in 1836 or 1837. Dr. 
Thomas Parks, of Missouri, is the only surviving grandchild of Walter 
Davis, Sr. 

John Cunningham, believed to have been a brother of Robert, lived 
in Staunton, his residence being on Lot No. i, southwest corner of Au- 
gusta street and Spring Lane. He had three daughters and one son. 
His oldest daughter was Mrs. Margaret Reed, mentioned on page 153. 
who was baptized by Mr. Craig in 1747, and died in 1827. Another 


daughter, Isabella, married Major Robert Burns, and was the mother of 
Mrs. Waterman and Mrs. Gambill, of Rockingham. The third daughter 
of John Cunningham, Elizabeth, married Captain Thomas Smith. 
According to family tradition, Captain Smith commanded the only 
troop of cavalry that went into the Continental service from Augusta 
during the Revolutionary war. His daughters were Mrs. Michael Gar- 
ber, Mrs. Moses McCue, and Mrs. John Jones. Captain Walter Cun- 
ningham, only son of John, removed to Kentucky in 1788, and thus the 
name disappeared from the county. 

We are indebted to Major James- B. Dorman, a grandson of Mrs. 
Moses McCue, for most of the above facts. 


Robert Poage, with many other settlers in the Valley, appeared at 
Orange court. May 22, 1740, to "prove his importation," with the view 
of taking up public lands. The record sets forth that he, his wife, 
Elizabeth, and nine children, named, came from Ireland to Phila- 
delphia, "and from thence to this colony," at his own expense. He 
may have come some years earlier than the date mentioned, but we 
find no trace of him before that time. Alexander Breckenridge proved 
his importation on the same day, and very likely the two families came 
over in the same ship. 

Mr. Poage settled on a plantation three miles north of Staunton, 
which he must have purchased from William Beverley, as the land was 
in Beverley's Manor. The tract .contained originally seven hundred 
and seventy-two acres. It was there, no doubt, that the young 
preacher, McAden, obtained his first dinner in Virginia on Saturday, 
June 21, 1755. (See page 66.) 

But he acquired other lands directly from the government. There is 
before us a patent on parchment, executed by Governor Gooch,July 
30, 1742, granting to Robert Poage three hundred and six acres of 
land "in the county of Orange, on the west side of the Blue Ridge," to 
be held " in free and common soccage, and not in capite or by knight's 
service," in consideration of thirty-five shillings; provided the grantee 
should pay a fee rent of one shilling for every fifty acres, annually, '' on 
the feast of St. Michael the Archangel," etc. The seal attached to the 
patent has on it an impression of the royal crown of Great Britain. 

The will of Robert Poage, dated October 20, 1773, was proved in 
court March 6, 1774. The executors were William Lewis and testator's 
son, John. The testator mentions his sons John, Thomas, Robert, 
George and William, and his daughters Martha Woods, Elizabeth 
Crawford and Margaret Robertson. To the last six he gave only 


"one pistole" each, having provided for them otherwise. The son 
Thomas is not named in the Orange county court record, and the 
presumption is that he was born after the family came to America. 
The record referred to mentions, however, two daughters, Mary and 
Sarah, who are not named in the will. Both had probably died before 
the date of the will. One of these, it is supposed, was the first wife of 
Major Robert Breckenridge (son of Alexander), who died while quite 
young, leaving two sons, Robert and Alexander Breckenridge, who 
became prominent citizens of Kentucky. (See page 140, and also 
" Mrs. Floyd's Narrative.") 

The only children of Robert and Elizabeth Poage, of whom we have 
any particular account, are their sons John and Thomas. 

I. John Poage qualified as assistant to Thomas Lewis, Surveyor of 
Augusta county, May 20, 1760. In 1763, he was a vestryman of Augusta 
Parish (see page no). On March 17, 1778, he became high sheriff, and 
on the next day qualified as county surveyor. His will, dated Feb- 
ruary 16, 1789, and proved in court April 22, 1789, mentions his wife, 
Mary, and his children, Robert, George, James, John, Thomas, Eliza- 
beth and Ann. Of most of these nothing is known. 

1. Robert Poage, son of John, qualified as assistant county surveyor, 
June 16, 1778. Nothing else is known of him. 

2. James Poage. A person of Jhis name married a daughter of Mrs. 
Martha Woods (daughter of Robert Poage, Sr.), and removed to 
Kentucky. If this was James the son of John, he and his wife were 
first cousins. In 1796, a James Poage was a member of the Kentucky 
Legislature, from Clarke county. 

3. John Poage, son of John, succeeded his father as county surveyor. 
He lived on a farm near Mowry's Mill, about five miles north of Staun- 
ton, and died in 1827, leaving several children, most of whom went 
west. His son James, who remained in Augusta, died in 1876. 

4. Thomas Poage, son of John, Sr., was a promising young minis 
ter, who died in 1793. He had recently married a Miss Jane Waikins, 
to whom, and his brother John, he left his estate. The witnesses to the 
will were the Rev. William Wilson and the Rev. John Poage Campbell. 
The latter and John Poage were appointed executors. Mr. Campbell's 
name was originally simply John Campbell, but he added the name 
Poage on account of his devotion to his friend, Thomas Poage (see 
page 192). 

5. Elizabeth, daughter of John Poage, Sr., was the wife of the 
Rev. Dr. Moses Hoge, long president of Hampden Sidney College. 
She was married August 23, 1783, and died June, 1802. Her three sons 
were eminent ministers, viz : Rev. Dr. James Hoge, of Columbus, Ohio ; 
Rev. John Blair Hoge, a man of brilliant genius, who died young, at 
Martinsburg ; and Rev. Samuel Davies Hoge, who also died young, the 
father of the Rev. Moses D. Hoge, D. D., of Richmond. 

Of George and Ann Poage, the remaining children of John Poage, 
Sr., nothing is known. 


II. Thomas Poage, son of Robert, Sr., inherited and lived on his 
father's homestead. His wife was Polly McClanahan. His will, proved 
in court, January 24, 1803, mentions his children, viz: Elijah, Robert, 
John, William, Elizabeth, Ann, Polly and Agnes. 

1. Elijah Poage married Nancy Grattan, daughter of John Grattan 
(see pages 177-8), July 3, 1787, and went to Kentucky. 

2. Robert Poage, son of Thomas, Sr., married Martha Crawford, 
September 15, 1791. and went to Kentucky. 

3 John Poage, son of Thomas, Sr., married, November 27, 1792, 
Mrs. Rachel Crawford, widow of John Crawford, of Augusta, and daugh- 
ter of Hugh Barclay, of Rockbridge. He lived in Rockbridge, on a farm 
given to him by his father, and was the grandfather of Colonel William 
T. Poage of Lexington. 

4. William Poage, youngest son of Thomas, Sr., was the Major 
Poage who lived many years on the ancestral farm, three miles from 
Staunton. His first wife was Betsy, daughter of Colonel Andrew An- 
derson. She died without issue, and he married again, Peggy Allen (see 
" The Aliens "), by whom there was a large family. His son Thomas, 
a rising lawyer in southwest Virginia, was Colonel of the Fiftieth Virginia 
regiment when he was killed, on Blackwater, in February, 1863. One 
of Major Poage's daughters is the wife of General James A. Walker, 
late Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia. » To A. W. Poage, of Wythe, a 
son of Major Poage, we are indebted for much of this family history. 

5. Ann Poage, daughter of Thomas. Sr., married Major Archibald 
Woods, of Botetourt, March 5, 17S9, who was a son of Mrs. Martha 
Woods, daughter of Robert Poage, Sr. Major Woods removed to Ohio 
county, and died in 1846. His son, Thomas, who was cashier of the 
North Western Bank of Virginia, at Wheeling, was the father of the 
Rev. Edgar Woods, of Pantops Academy, Albemarle. 

6. Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Poage, Sr., was the wife of the Rev. 
William Wilson, of Augusta church. (See page 135.) 

7. Polly, daughter of Thomas Poage, Sr., was the wife of Thomas 
Wilson, a brother of the Rev. William Wilson. Thomas Wilson lived 
at Morgantown, Northwest Virginia, and was a lawyer, member of Con- 
gress, etc. His son, the Rev. Norval Wilson, was long a prominent 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal church, and one of his daughters, 
Mrs. Louisa Lowrie, was a missionary in India. Among the grandsons 
of Thomas Wilson are Bishop Alpheus Wilson and E. W. Wilson, the 
present Governor of West Virginia. 

8. Agnes Poage, daughter of Thomas, Sr., died unmarried. 
Another family of Poages came from Ireland and settled in Rockbridge 

county. The name of the ancestor is not known. He was, probably, 
a brother of Robert Poage, Sr., who settled in Augusta about 1740. 
His wife was Jane Somers. They had ten children. One of the sons, 
Jonathan, was the grandfather of Dr. Poage, late of Rockbridge, of Mrs. 
Lane, a missionary in Brazil, and others. A daughter, Ann, was the 
wife of Isaac Caruthers, and has many descendants widely scattered. 


Another daughter, Martha, married James Moore. The fifth child of 
James and Martha Moore was called Mary, after her father's oldest sister, 
who was the wife of Major Alexander Stuart, father of Judge Archibald 
Stuart. Mary Moore became the wife of the Rev. Samuel Brown, of 
New Providence. When a child, nine years of age, living with her 
parents in Abb's Valley, now Tazewell county, she and others were 
carried off by Indians, July 14, 1786, and detained in captivity three 


For the only account of any proceedings under the ordinances passed 
by the State Convention in July, 1775, providing for the organization of 
"minute men," we are indebted to the ".Gilmer Papers," issued in 
1887 by the Virginia Historical Society. Commissioners from the coun- 
ties of Buckingham, Amherst, Albemarle and Augusta, composing a 
district (see page 157), met on the 8th of September, 1775, at the house 
of James Woods, in Amherst, now Nelson. The commissioners from 
Augusta were Sampson Mathew^, Alexander McClanahan and Samuel 
McDowell. It was resolved that Augusta furnish four companies of 
fifty men each, and that each of the other counties furnish two compa- 
nies, making the total often companies and five hundred men required 
by the ordinance. George Mathews, of Augusta, was chosen colonel ; 
Charles Lewis, of Albemarle, lieutenant-colonel ; David Gaines, major; 
and Thomas Patterson (or Patteson, doubtless, of Buckingham), 
"commissary of masters." 

The officers appointed for the Augusta companies were as follows : 

ist. Benjamin Harrison, captain ; Henry Evans, lieutenant ; and Cu- 
rord Custard, ensign. 

2d. Daniel Stephenson, captain; John McMahon, lieutenant; and 
Samuel Henderson, ensign. 

3d. Alexander Long, captain ; James Sayres, lieutenant ; and John 
Buchanan, ensign. 

4th. William Lyle, Jr., lieutenant; and William Moore, ensign. The 
captain of this company was not named. 

The first company was evidently intended to be raised in the north- 
ern part of the county, now Rockingham, and the fourth in the south- 
ern part, now Rockbridge. 

The regiment was required to meet on the east side of the Blue 
Ridge, at a point to be designated by the colonel, within three miles of 
Rockfish Gap. 

As far as we have learned, no other proceedings were taken in 
pursuance of the ordinance, and probably the regiment never mus- 
tered. In December following, an ordinance was passed for raising 


seven regiments of regulars, in addition to the First and Second, and 
George Mathews was then appointed by the Convention lieutenant - 
colonel of the Ninth. (See pages 157, 158 and 160.) The latter ordi- 
nance superseded the former, which proposed merely a militia organi- 

The ordinance of July, 1775, also called for two regiments of regulars, 
the First and Second, as mentioned on page 156, and the district com- 
missioners, at their meeting in September, designated the officers for 
two companies. Among them was Thomas Hughes, but whether cap- 
tain or lieutenant it is impossible to tell from Dr. Gilmer's memoran- 
dum. He was, however, no doubt, the Captain Hughes mentioned on 
page 159. William Robertson, of Augusta, was chosen a lieutenant. 

Lieutenant Robertson entered the service in 1775, and was at the 
battles of Great Bridge, Brandywine and Germantown. Being a mem- 
ber of Colonel Mathews's regiment at Germantown, he was taken 
prisoner there, and detained three years. After his discharge, he 
rejoined the army and served till the close of the war. He died 
November 12, 1831. 

[The only child of William Robertson was the wife of Charles A. 
Stuart, of Greenbrier, who, with his sons, William Robertson and John 
Stuart, succeeded to the old gentleman's property. He owned at one 
time the mill which stood where the mill of Witz & Holt is now, but 
sold it before his death to Jacob Smith.] 

The following is said to have been written as an inscription for a flag 
of one of the Augusta companies during the Revolution. Whether it 
was so used, we do not know : 

" We raise this banner to defend the cause 
Of injured freedom and our country's laws; 
This banner, Britain, means no ill to thee : 
We love as children, but we will be free." 

An Incident of the Revolution, which occurred in Augusta, is 
related ir» the memoir of Mrs. Jane Allen Trimble. The women and 
children of that era were left in charge of the homesteads, and many 
females displayed as much patriotism and courage as the male mem- 
bers of their families. Rigid economy and untiring industry were 
practised in every household, and mnny families, whose sons and 
brothers were in the field as soldiers, were dependent upon their 
neighbors for the means of living. 

A German family dwelling near the Stone church, seemed to be out 
of the pale of sympathy that pervaded society. They contributed 
neither men nor means to aid the cause, and were regarded as Tories, 
but afraid to avow their principles. 


An officer of the Virginia line visited his family in Augusta in 1777, 
and was at a social party composed principally of females, when the 
conduct of the family alluded to was commented upon. A majority of 
the party urged that the Tories should be driven out of the neighbor- 
hood. Jane Allen and one of the Misses Grattan opposed the proposi- 
tion, saying that the people, if driven away, would probably go to North 
Carolina and swell the number of active enemies. It was therefore 
agreed that the case should be put into the hands of the young women 
named, to be managed by them. The two heroines made their plan 
and proceeded to execute it at once. Disguised as Continental officers, 
it is said, they repaired to the house of the German, two miles oif, late 
\n the evening. The dogs announced their approach, and the men, 
seeing officers coming, hid themselves, the female head of the family 
presenting herself at the door of her dwelling. " Madam," said one of 
the recruiting officers, " more soldiers are needed. You have four sons 
and can spare two. Your family has been protected by your neighbors, 
while you have contributed nothing to relieve the women and children 
around you. You must either furnish men for the army, or supplies for 
the neighborhood." 

The old woman exclaimed, " Mine Fader, vot vill ve do ! " A voice 
from the loft cried out : " O give de money or provisions, and let de men 
stay at home." The husband was thereupon ordered down, and the 
contract then ratified was observed during the war. 

The young women returned and made their report. Profound secrecy 
was enjoined and preserved, as to the persons engaged in the enterprise. 
The evening's entertainment was closed with a hymn, and a prayer for 
the Divine blessing, led by the good-man of the house. 

Andrew Wallace — Upon the authority of an old army list, it is 
stated on page 179 that Captain Wallace was killed at the battle of 
King's Mountain. Foote states, however, and no doubt correctly, that 
he was killed at Guilford. (See Sketches of Virginia, second series, 
page 147). He says: " Captain Andrew Wallace, from near Lexington, 
was in the regular service, and had always shown himself a brave man. 
That morning he expressed a mournful presage that he would fall that 
day. In the course of the action, he sheltered himself behind a tree, 
with some indications of alarm. Being reproached, he immediately left 
the shelter, and in a moment received his death wound." 

Foote says, also: "A brother of his. Captain Adam Wallace, was 
with Buford at the terrible massacre on the Waxhaw. After killing 
many of the enemy with his espontoon " [a kind of pike], "he died, 
bravelv fighting." 

Another brother. Captain Hugh Wallace, in the regular army, died 
in Philadelphia, of small-pox. 


Thomas Adams, a native of the county of Essex, England, was in 
early life clerk of Henrico county court, Virginia, and later a mer- 
chant in London. Returning to Virginia, he settled in New Kent 
county. In 1766, he purchased from John Carlyle two hundred acres of 
land on the Great Calfpasture river, in Augusta. In 1771, he purchased 
from Carlyle two hundred and fifty acres in the same valley; and in 
1772, he acquired from William Wills one hundred and ten acres on a 
" branch of the Great River of the Calf Pasture." He also acquired 
lands from the government by patent. All the deeds describe him as 
"Thomas Adams, of Xew Kent." It is well known that most of the 
African slaves imported into Virginia in former times were brought 
over by New England "skippers"; and from a bill of sale which has 
been preserved, it appears that on the 12th of May, 1773, '" considera- 
tion of ^42, los, Thomas Adams purchased a negro girl from "Joseph 
Hanwood, of Newbury, in the Province of New Hampshire, Marriner." 
(Virginia Historical Collections, Vol. VI, page 23.) 

In i778-'8o, Mr. Adams was a member of the Continental Congress, 
from lower Virginia. During the year 1780 he removed to Augusta, 
and spent the remainder of his life here. A deed dated November 17, 
1780, by which he conveyed two hundred and thirty-five acres of land, 
acquired by patent in 1769, to Moore Fauntleroy, describes him as a 
citizen of Augusta. In 1786, he represented the county in the State 
Senate. He is described as an ardent patriot, and from his writings, 
etc., he was evidently a man of great intelligence and benevolence. 

He died at his home in the Pastures in the year 1788, leaving a 
widow, but no children. His will is dated October 14, 1785, and begins 
as follows: " Being about to take a perilous journey to the Ohio river." 
It was presented in the county court of Augusta and proved October 
22, 1788. The testator provided amply for his wife, and constituted his 
brother, Richard, and his nephews, William Adams Fry, William 
Smith and William Adams, his residuary legatees and devisees. He 
was particularly solicitous for the welfare of his slaves, and enjoined it 
upon his legatees to treat them kindly, and " not to sell or barter them 
away as cattle." In regard to one of the negroes, he says : " As there 
is no man to whom I consider myself under greater obligations than to 
my slave Joe, I hereby declare Joe a freeman, and give him full and 
complete emancipation." 

Errata. — The fort alluded to on page 98, as probably 'Fass's," or 
" Vau:v's," was more likely /^ori Dinwiddie. 

For '' chapel of care," on page loi, read " chapel of ease^ 

Governor James Preston was brother-in-law of the first Governor 
Floyd, not ''father-in-law " as stated on page 117. 
- For ''Clement R. Mason,''' on page 334, read "Claiborne R." 

For " decreed," on page 161, read " deemed." 



E>avid Moore, with his mother and ten brothers and a sister, came 
from the north of Ireland to America, and settled in Borden's Grant. 
The maiden name of his mother was Baxter. When a young girl, she 
was in Londonderry, during the famous siege of 1689. David Moore's 
wife was Mary Evans, and his sons were William and Andrew. (See 
page 143.) 

William Moore was born about the year 1748, at Cannicello, now in 
Rockbridge county, and received a plain education at schools in the 
neighborhood. From his boyhood he was remarkable for his temperate 
habits, intrepidity, and great physical strength. At times, when the 
country was in a state of alarm on account of the Indians, he would 
take solitary excursions and remain out all night by himself. In 1774, 
he participated in the battle of Point Pleasant. During the action, John 
Steele was wounded and about to be scalped, when Moore interposed, 
shooting one Indian and knocking down another with his rifle. He 
then shouldered Steele, who was a very large and heavy man, and after 
laying him down in a safe place nearly two miles ofT, returned to the 
fight. Steele was accustomed to say, "There was no other man in the 
army who could have done it, if he would ; and no other who would 
have done it, if he could." Moore is believed to have been in the mili- 
tary service during the whole war of the Revolution, and at the surren- 
der of Cornwallis, he held the rank of captain. 

After the war. Captain Moore settled in Lexington as a merchant. It 
is said that he brought to that town the first sack of coffee ever seen 
there. Like most enterprising men, however, he was " in advance of 
his age." His customers were not acquainted with coffee, and it re- 
mained unsold till some Pennsylvanians arrived and purchased it. The 
people of Lexington and vicinity were quicker to learn the use of tea. 
As explained by an old lady living there, her husband "drank the 
broth," and she "ate the greens." 

After merchandising in Lexington, Captain Moore had an iron fur- 
nace on South River, Rockbridge, and then lived near Fairfield. For 
many years he was a justice of the peace, and was high sheriff for two 
terms. He died in Lexington in 1841, aged ninety-three. 

The wife of Captain Moore was Nancy McClung, and his children, 
were Samuel, David, John, Eliab, Jane, Isabella, Elizabeth and Nancy. 

Colonel John Allen was born in what is now Rockbridge county, 
December 30, 1772. His father, James Allen, emigrated to Kentucky 
in 1780, and settled near the present town of Danville, but afterwards 


removed to the vicinity of Bardstown. In this town young Allen went 
to school and acquired some classical learning. Coming to Virginia, 
he assisted in surveying a tract of land in Rockbridge, and was e.x- 
amined as a witness in court in a suit about the land. Judge Archibald 
Stuart, of Staunton, then a practicing lawyer, was employed in the 
case, and being pleased with the young man's intelligence, sought his 
acquaintance. The result was that Allen came to Staunton in 1791, 
and spent four years in Judge Stuart's office. He returned to Ken- 
tucky in 1795, and immediately entered upon a brilliant career. As a 
lawyer, he ranked with the first men of his profession. At the begin- 
ning of the war of 1812 he raised a regiment of riflemen, and was killed 
at the battle of the River Raisen, January 22, 1S13. Allen county, Ken- 
tucky, was called for him. (See Collins's History of Kentucky.) 


As stated on page 207, from the time of the first settlement of Ken- 
tucky till near the close of the eighteenth century, the most frequented 
route of travel from the Eastern and Northern States to Kentucky was 
called the "Wilderness Road." John Filson, a native of Delaware and 
one of the earliest settlers of Kentucky, returned to his former home, 
in 1786, and kept a journal of the stopping places, and the distances 
between them. Starting from the " Falls of the Ohio " (Louisville), he 
mentions thirty-six places between that point and Staunton. Among 
the places named are Bardstown, Harrod's Station, Logan's Station, 
Cumberland Mountain, Powell's Mountain, Black Horse, Washington 
Courthouse, Head of Holston, Fort Chiswell, New River, Alleghany 
Mountain, Botetourt Courthouse, North Branch of James River, and 
Staunton. The distance from the Falls of the Ohio to Staunton by this 
route, as noted by Filson. was five hundred and nine miles. {Life of 
Filson, by Colonel R. T. Durritt.) The trip on horseback must have 
required considerably more than a month. 

In the year 1783 or 1784 a large party of Augusta people — ^Allens, 
Moffetts, Trimbles and others — removed to Kentucky, going by the 
route just mentioned. Among the emigrants was Mrs. Jane Allen 
Trimble, wife of Captain James Trimble, a woman of rare excellence, 
in whose memoir we find a graphic account of the trip. 

Soon after the Revolutionary war. Captain Trimble and others, who 
had been soldiers, went to Kentucky to locate the land-warrants issued 
to them for military services. They were delighted with the country, 
and on their return to Augusta a spirit of immigration was awakened 
throughout the county. The memoir states that it was in 1784, but other 
accounts say 1783. In September of one of those years, a company was 


formed, consisting of eight or ten families, who made known that they 
would meet in Staunton on the ist of October, in order to emigrate to 
Kentucky, and they invited others to join them, either in Staunton or 
on the route to Abingdon. On the Sabbath previous to their departure 
they attended their several churches, and heard their last sermons in 
Virginia, as they supposed. Mrs. Trimble, says the memoir, often 
referred to that day's religious experience as being unusually interest- 
ing and impressive. The services she attended were conducted by the 
Rev. James Waddell, and "the minister spoke of the separation of 
parents and children, brothers and sisters, friends and neighbors, who 
had been united in sweetest bonds of fellowship, in such a pathetic 
strain as to make all eyes fill with tears." 

"The families met, according to agreement, in Staunton, October ist. 
All rode upon horses, and upon other horses were placed the farming 
and cooking utensils, beds and bedding, wearing apparel, provisions, 
and last, but not least, the libraries, consisting of two Bibles,* half a 
dozen Testaments, the Catechism, the Confession of Faith of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and the Psalms of David. Each man and boy carried 
his rifle and ammunition, and each woman her pistol, for their long 
journey was mostly through a wilderness, and that infested by savages. 

"James Trimble's family consisted of a wife and three children, and 
four colored servants. The eldest child was a daughter by a former 
marriage. The other two were sons, one three years old and the other 
eleven months. These the mother carried, one in her lap and the other 
behind her. Thus equipped, the emigrants took up their line of march, 
after bidding farewell to their weeping friends. Mrs. Trimble had an 
uncle and brother, with their families, to accompany her. 

"By the time the party reached Abingdon, they had increased to 
three hundred persons, and when they arrived at Bean's Station, a 
frontier post, they were joined by two hundred more from Carolina. 
Three-fourths of these were women and children." General Knox, of 
Revolutionary fame, afterwards Washington's Secretary of War, fell in 
with them at some point, which is not stated, and at Bean's Station the 
entire command of their movements was conceded to him. 

General Knox organized ihe unincumbered horsemen, of whom 
there were not more than twenty, in two companies, one to go in front 
and the other in the rear, with the women and children and pack- 
horses in the middle. There was no road, and the trail being wide 
enough for only one horse, the emigrants went in single file, forming a 
line of nearly a mile long. At the eastern base of Clinch Mountain 
there was the first indication of Indians prowling near them. Clinch 
river was swollen by recent rains, and in crossing it Mrs. Trimble and 

* Bibles were costly in those days. During colonial times, the printing of the English 
version in America was prohibited, and a heavy duty was laid on copies imported. The 
only copies of the Scriptures printed here before the Revolution were Eliot's Indian and 
Luther's German Bibles. 


her children came near losing their lives. A Mrs. Ervin carried two 
negro children in a wallet thrown across her horse, and these were 
washed off by the current, but rescued by a Mr. Wilson. 

A party of eight horsemen overtook the emigrants at Clinch river, 
and preceded them on the route. Measles broke out, and there was 
scarcely a family in the train that had not a patient to nurse ; but, not- 
withstanding their exposure to rain during several days, no death 

Between Clinch river and Cumberland Gap, the emigrants came 
upon the remains of the eight horsemen who had passed on before 
them. They had been tomahawked, scalped and stripped by Indians, 
and some of the bodies had been partly devoured by wolves. General 
Knox and his party paused long enough to bury the remains of the 
unfortunate men. During the night which followed, there were unmis- 
takable signs of Indians near the camp. The savages hooted and 
howled like wolves and owls till after midnight, and made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to stampede the horses. The next morning the In- 
dians were seen on the hills, and their signal guns were distinctly heard. 
A night or two afterwards, when the camp fires were extinguished, and 
nothing was heard but the sound of the falling rain and the occasional 
tramp of a horse, a sentinel discovered an Indian within twenty feet of 
him, and fired his gun. This alarmed the camp, and in a few minutes 
the whole party was under arms. No attack was made, however. In 
the morning Indian tracks were distinct and numerous, and some of 
them were sprinkled with blood, showing that the sentinel had fired 
with effect. 

An attack by the Indians was confidently expected at the narrow 
pass of Cumberland Gap, and every precaution was taken. Discon- 
certed in their plans, the Indians made no assault. At every river to be 
crossed the utmost caution was observed to guard against surprise, and 
the Indians finally abandoned the pursuit. 

The emigrants arrived at Crab Orchard, Kentucky, the first of Novem- 
ber. This was the frontier post on the northeast border, from which 
emigrants branched off to their respective destinations Here General 
Knox took leave of the party in an eloquent address, which was res- 
ponded to appropriately by Captain Trimble. 

Mrs. Trimble removed to Ohio with her children after her husband's 
death, and afterwards made several trips on horseback to Virginia. 
One trip, made in 1811, was accomplished in two weeks. The child who 
rode behind her on her journey to Kentucky, was Allen, who for four 
years was Governor of Ohio. She survived till 1849. 



In the latter part of 1793, an unfortunate man suffered death by hang- 
ing, at Staunton, under circumstances which have always excited popu- 
lar sympathy. It is not often that an accused person is condemned 
contrary to public sentiment; but it seems to have been so in this case, 
and to the present day the execution is referred to as an instance of 
iudicial murder. 

John Bullitt, the person alluded to, was a young man from Kentucky, 
and is said to have been of feeble intellect. While in Augusta county 
he was accused of " feloniously stealing and carrying away from the 
plantation of John Nichols, Sr., of the said county, on the i8th day of 
September, 1790, a gray horse of the price of thirty pounds, and other 
property, belonging to said Nichols, of the value of five pounds." 
Total value of the property, $116.66%. Where the accused was from 
September 18, 1790, till August 26, 1793, is not known. There is a tradi- 
tion that he was returning with the horse when he was arrested. On 
the last mentioned day the county court sat for his examination, and he 
was brought before that tribunal. The court consisted of Alexander 
Robertson, Alexander St. Clair, Robert Douthat, William Moffett and 
Alexander Humphreys, " Gentlemen Justices " ; and on the testimony 
of John Nichols, Sr., John Nichols, Jr., Jesse Atkinson and George Sea, 
the prisoner was sent on for trial before the district court " to be holden 
at Staunton, on the 2d day of September next." 

The order-book containing the proceedings in the district court (No. 
2) has disappeared, and therefore we cannot say which of the judges pre- 
sided at the trial and what persons composed the jury. Neither can we 
ascertain whether there was an application for a writ of error, nor on what 
day the execution was appointed to take place. It is certain, however, 
that Bullitt was condemned, and that he was hung on some day subse- 
quent to October 16, 1793. 

On that day the county court ordered the sheriff to erect a gallows 
" at the fork of the roads leading from Staunton to Miller's iron works 
and to Peter Hanger's," and that, the order says, " shall be considered 
as the place of execution of all condemned persons in future, which 
may by law be executed by the sheriff of Augusta." Evidently the 
court anticipated a brisk business in that line. The fork of the roads 
alluded to is the point in the northern part of the town where Augusta 
and New streets unite. The spot was then in the woods, and a log 
house built there afterwards was long occupied by the Gorden family. 
There Bullitt paid the penalty of his life for a paltry offence which it is 
doubtful if he committed. It was currently said that the younger 
Nichols loaned him the horse, and probably saddle and bridle ("of the 


value of five pounds "), but through fear of his father, a man of violent 
temper, permitted the youth to be hung as a felon. 

It is related that the Rev. John McCue was present at the execution, 
and betrayed great emotion. The popular feeling was long expressed 
by a saying often repeated to puzzle children : " That if a person would 
go to John Gorden's house and say, ' John Bullitt, what were you hung 
for? ' he would say nothing," 

The gallows at the place described gave to all the northern part of 
Staunton the name of Gallowstown. 

The late James Bell, a young man of twenty-one in 1793, was deputy 
sheriff that year, and officiated at the execution. 

The county court, on October 15, 1793, ordered their clerk (Jacob Kin- 
ney) to purchase a bell for the courthouse, which, we believe, is the one 
still in use. 

Colonel Andrew Anderson, the Revolutionary soldier and for 
many consecutive years a delegate from the county in the Legislature, 
was married twice The children of his first wife were : (i) Dr. George 
Anderson, of Montgomery county ; (2) Mrs. Brown, of Kentucky, and 
(3) the first wife of Major William Poage, of Augusta. 

The second wife of Colonel Anderson was Martha, daughter of Patrick 
Crawford, and her children were: (i) John; (2) James, (both of whom 
died in Montgomery county, leaving no children) ; (3) Robert, who mar- 
ried Nancy Dean, of Greenbrier, and lived and died on his farm on 
Middle river and the macadamized turnpike, (see page 58) ; (4) William, 
who died in New Orleans; (5) Nancy, wife of William Crawford, of 
North Mountain ; and (6) Sally, wife of Jacob Ruff. 

Edward McLaughlin, a native of Londonderry, Ireland, settled 
early in the eighteenth century near the place now called Goshen, in 
Rockbridge county. His wife was a Miss Irvin. (See page 93.) He 
was a member of Captain Dickinson's company at Point Pleasant, and 
during the Revolutionary war participated in the battles of the Cowpens, 
Guilford, and Yorktown. His son, Edward I., was the father of Judge 
William McLaughlin. 

Peter Hanger, the first of the name in the county, lived near Staun- 
ton, at Spring Farm, now the Staunton water works. His wife was 
Hannah Gabbert, and his children were five sons— viz : Peter, George, 
Frederick, John (died a bachelor) and Jacob ; and his daughters. Bar- 


bara Rush, Hannah Fultz, Kitty Eidson, and Elizabeth, who died 

I. Peter Hanger, son of Peter and Hannah, lived on the Winchester 
road, eight miles from Staunton, at a place formerly widely known as 
"Hanger's," and latterly as " Willow Spout." His wife was Catherine 
Link, whose mother was Mary Smith. He had four sons and four 
daughters, who lived to maturity — viz: i. David, who went to Mis- 
souri; 2. Elizabeth, wife of Joshua Evans, Sr. ; 3. Hannah, wife of 
James Allen; 4. Dr. John Hanger; 5. Peter Hanger, of South River; 
6. Mary, wife of Samuel M. Woodward; 7. William S., still living; 
8. Eveline, wife of Jacob Baylor. 

II. George Hanger lived on Middle River, at Shutterle's mill. His 
wife was Obedience Robinson, and his children — i. William S.; 2. Alex- 
ander ; 3. Jacob; 4. Robinson; 5. Catharine, wife of William Mills. 

III. Jacob Hanger removed to Ohio. He had three sons — Robertson 
(formerly of New Hope), William and James. 

IV. Frederick Hanger was the ancestor of the Hangers of the southern 
part of Augusta and Rockbridge. 


On Friday, December 11, 1812, a negro girl was hung near Staunton 
for the murder, by drowning, of her master's infant child. She was 
duly tried and convicted by the county court, October 29th, Mr. Peyton 
prosecuting, and General Blackburn defending the accused. The cir- 
cumstance would not deserve mention in a history of the county, but 
an incident connected with it is somewhat interesting. Much sympathy 
was excited in the community in behalf of the miserable girl, many 
persons doubting whether she intended to drown the child. At any 
rate there was a feverish state of feeling on the subject. 

During the night after the execution the people of Staunton were 
aroused from their slumber by a most unearthly noise. Loud and appa- 
rently supernatural groans resounded through the town. The people 
generally rushed into the streets to ascertain the cause, and some of the 
more superstitious sort professed to have seen the girl alluded to sitting 
on the steps of the jail. 

It was years before the cause of alarm was ascertained. At the time 
of the occurrence and for many years afterwards, a large two-story 
frame building stood on the northwest corner of New and Courthouse 
street, opposite the Washington Tavern, and in this building Ben. Mor- 
ris, a prosperous merchant, had his store. He had in his employment 
a mischievous clerk, or salesman, who confessed, when it was safe to do 
so, that he had climbed upon the roof of the store-house through the 
trap-door, and aroused the town by means of a speaking-trumpet. 


The Black Hawk War.— In the summer of 1832, a breeze of excite- 
ment was caused in Staunton by the passage through the town of a 
detachment of United States troops, returning to Fort Monroe from 
the " Black Hawk War," in northwestern Illinois. The detachment 
consisted of six companies of artillery, serving as infantry, taken, two 
each, from the First, Third and Fourth regiments, and was commanded 
by Captain John Munroe. The commissary was Lieutenant W. A. 
Thornton, and one of the lieutenants was Joseph E. Johnston, who be- 
came the distinguished Confederate General. The troops marched 
through Main street from the west in military array, and rested in the 
meadow where the freight depot of the Valley Railroad now stands, 
to take their midday meal. Arms were stacked and knapsacks unslung, 
and the soldiers, producing from the latter bread and bacon, partook of 
their dinner on the grass. The officers dined at the Washington Tavern, 
then kept by Louis Harman. In the afternoon the command went on 
towards Waynesborough. 

Major Robert Anderson, who commanded at Fort Sumter in 1861, 
was a lieutenant of the Third artillery in 1832 ; but whether he was with 
the detachment which came through Staunton, we do not know. 

The Rev. William Wilson (see page 134) had two sons. Dr. James 
Wilson and Thomas P. Wilson. His brother, Thomas Wilson, married 
a Miss Poage, of Augusta, and settled in Morgantown, Monongalia 

The sons of Thomas Wilson were — i. Edward C. Wilson, a lawyer 
and member of Congress ; 2. Rev. Norval Wilson, of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, father of Bishop Alpheus Wilson ; 3. Alpheus P. 
Wilson, a prominent lawyer and member of the State Senate, from a 
district embracing all northwest Virginia from Pennsylvania to Ken- 
tucky. He removed to New Orleans, and in 1830 fell from a steamboat 
and was drowned. 

The Hunter Raid. — As stated on page 317, the quartermaster's 
wagons moved up the Greenville road Sunday evening June 5, 1864. 
They arrived at Smith's tavern long after dark. Resting there till day- 
light, the train then went on to cross the Blue Ridge at Tye River Gap. 
Reaching the top of the mountain, Monday evening, tents were pitched, 
and the party made themselves as comfortable as they could. Many 
refugees, ladies as well as men, with their stock, passed the camp that 
evening and the next day, going into Nelson county, which was sup- 
posed to be a safe retreat. All day Tuesday the quartermaster's party 
remained on the mountain ; but on Wednesday they went down into 


Nelson. Possession was taken of a vacant house known as " Hub 
bard's Quarter," only a few miles from Arrington depot, on the Orange 
and Alexandria railroad, now the Virginia Midland. A long rest was 
anticipated at that place, but after dark a courier arrived bringing an 
order from General Vaughan that the army stores should be forwarded 
to him at Rockfish Gap. Accordingly, most of the wagons, accom- 
panied by several officers and many subordinates, moved forward on 
Thursday, along the eastern base of the Blue Ridge, and reached Rock- 
fish Gap on Saturday the nth. There tidings were received by tele- 
graph, which excited fears as to the fate of the men and stores left at 
Hubbard's. A party of Federal troops, it was reported, had burned 
Arrington depot. Several days elapsed before the facts were ascer- 

Captain R. H. Phillips had remained at Hubbard's in charge of such 
stores as it was thought General Vaughan would not need, and with 
him were Anthony D. Wren, James H. Blackley, William D. Candler, and 
other employees. While they were waiting for their dinner on Satur-i 
day, to their infinite astonishment a party of Federal cavalry burst 
upon them, having followed on their track across the mountain. The 
enemy dashed up with a shout, firing their pistols and demanding the 
surrender of the " rebels." Wren instantly fled, and escaped by con- 
cealing himself in an adjacent wheat field ; the others surrendered at 
discretion. Boxes were hurriedly broken open and rifled, the house 
was set on fire, and in less than half an hour the enemy retired with 
their prisoners and plunder. The latter included many valuable papers 
and much jewelry. On account of his feeble physical condition at the 
time, James H. Blackley was turned loose on parole after a few days; 
but Captain Phillips and William D. Candler were taken to Ohio and 
detained for many months in a military prison. 


The most interesting part of Augusta county, in some respects, is the 
strip of country extending from the iron bridge across Middle river, on 
the Staunton and Churchville road, up the river to the mouth of Buff"alo 
Branch, and up that stream and Dry Branch to their respective sources. 
Middle river is throughout its whole extent in Augusta. From its head 
spring, near Shemariah church, to its mouth, near Mount Meridian, is 
only about thirty-five miles; but the length of the stream, in its mean- 
derings, is not far short of a hundred miles. Beginning as a mountain 
rill, it broadens as it goes, and towards its mouth becomes a wide and 
beautiful river. 


On the west side of the river, a little beyond the bridge, on the Dud- 
ley farm, is what remains of an ancient artificial mound. It has been 
plowed over for many years, and is now nearly leveled. Human 
bones, pipes and stone arrow-heads have often been turned up. It is 
supposed that, before the arrival of white people in the Valley, a battle 
between Indians occurred at the spot, and that the slain were buried 

Going up stream from the bridge referred to, for about two miles, the 
road crosses the river seven times. This region is thickly settled, farm 
houses being close together on both sides of the river. At several 
points cliffs arise from the margin of the channel, making the scene 
picturesque and specially attractive. In one of these cliffs, probably 
fifty feet from the base and about twenty-five feet from the top, there is 
a hole which looks like the entrance to a cavern. Of course a story 
has been invented to fit the hole. It is related that in early times, 
when Indians were about, a white man on horseback was pursued by 
savages, and dashing up to the top of the cliff, concealed himself in the 
hole, while his horse pitched over and was killed. An inspection of the 
place, however, shows conclusively that the incident as related could 
not have occurred. 

But not far west of the cliff, on the north side of the river, the last 
massacre by Indians in the county took place. As supposed, it was on 
what has been known of late years as the Geeding farm, that John Trim- 
ble was killed, in October 1764, his dwelling burnt, and his son and step- 
daughter taken prisoners. A mile or more further westward stood then, 
as now, on the south side of the river, a stone house called the " Old 
Fort," or "Old Keller House," which was used in times of danger as a 
place of refuge by the people around. Why the Trimbles did not re- 
pair to this house is not known. At that very time, it is believed, the 
younger children of Alexander Crawford were sheltered there, and 
thus escaped the slaughter which befell their parents at their home. The 
older part of the stone house is in a state of dilapidation, the gable end 
having fallen out, but the rafters and other timbers are as sound as they 
were a hundred and twenty-five years ago. 

The stone house stands in a bend of Middle river, which, coming 
from the south, there turns abruptly to the east. Just at the bend Buffalo 
Branch empties into the river. At any time when seen by the writer, it 
was a misnomer to call the former a branch or stream, as the bed was 
"dry as a bone." The broad channel, however, was full of well-worn 
river stones, and evidently a bold current flowed there at times. Rising 
in the Great North Mountain chain, at the foot of Elliott's Knob, the 
stream, fed by winter rains and melted snows in spring, flows through 
Buffalo Gap to join Middle River. For some eight months in the year 
the channel is full, and the water often raging, but during the summer 
and early fall it is usually dry as described. 

A short distance west of the mouth of Buffalo Branch this stream is 
joined by Dry Branch. The latter rises in the Little North Mountain 


range, north of Buffalo Gap, and for a part of the year is a torrent, but 
dries up in summer, as the former does. 

Buffalo Branch and Dry Branch come together on land now owned 
by Alexander B. Lightner, where Thomas Gardiner lived in 1764, when 
he was killed by Indians. South of this point, and quite near, is the 
highly improved farm of Theodore F. Shuey. And just there is the 
most beautiful mountain view to be found in the county. Buffalo Gap 
is seen in the southwest, a few miles off, the Little North Mountain 
opened down to its base, and beyond the cleft Elliott's Knob towers up 
to the clouds. 

The excursionist, proceeding along the channel of Dry Branch west- 
ward to near the foot of Little North Mountain, will come to the spot 
where Alexander- Crawford and his wife were massacred in 1764. 



In former times this name was often written Stewart, in accordance 
with the original Scotch mode. 

Five or more persons of tiie name were among the early settlers of 
Augusta county. One of these (James Stuart) died intestate in 1758. 
He was probably the father of John Stuart, " of the Middle River of 
Shenandoe," whose will was admitted to record August 21, 1771, 
whose wife was Mary, and whose children were John, James, Jane, Mary, 
and Elizabeth. Another John Stuart died in 1790, probably son of the 
former, and in his will mention is made of his wife (Frances) and chil- 
dren—Mary, Margaret, and Samuel. Dr. Peachy R. Harrison, of Rock- 
ingham, married Jane, daughter of John Stuart of the Stone Church, or 
Middle River, neighborhood (see page 415), and of no other member of 
this particular family have we any account. 

Three other early settlers named Stuart— Archibald, David, and 
John— are believed to have been brothers, and of these and their 
descendants we have the following information : 

Archibald Stuart. — See a short sketch on page 192. His will was 
admitted to record November 17, 1761, and in it he mentioned his wife 
(Janet), his sons Thomas, Alexander, and Benjamin, his daughter 
Eleanor, and his grandson and namesake Archibald (Judge Stuart). 

I. Thomas Stuart married Elizabeth Moore, and had nine children. 
His sons were — 

1. James, who settled in Tennessee. 

2. Thomas, an officer in the United States army. 

3. Robert, who settled in Botetourt. 
Among his daughters were — 

1. Miss Jenny Stuart, baptized by the Rev. John Craig in 1747, lived 
in Staunton to a great age, and left a considerable estate which she had 
managed with masculine energy and skill. She owned and resided on 
the lot at the southeast corner of Beverley and Augusta streets. She 
also owned the lot at the northeast corner of Frederick and Lewis 
streets, where her barn and stable were, and many acres near the town. 
In early life she recovered heavy damages from her cousin. Dr. Isaac 
Hall, the first of that name and title, in a suit for breach of marriage 
contract, which was the foundation of her fortune. 

2. Julia, first wife of Captain William Lyle, of Rockbridge, and 
mother of the late Mrs. Dr. Henry Ruffner, of Lexington, and others. 

3. Mary, wife of James Moffett, of Augusta, and mother of (i) John 
Moffett, (2) William Moffett, (3) Betsy, wife of John McClanahan, (4) 
Robert S. Moffett, (5) Jane, wife of Dr. John K. Moore, (6) Mary, wife 
of Alexander T. Barclay, (7) Thomas MoflTett, and (S) fulia, wife of 
William Paxton. 


4. Elizabeth, wife of Captain William Paxton, of Rockbridge, had 
five children, among them the late Mrs. Alexander S. Hall, of Staunton. 

II. Alexander Sluari— the Major Stuart of the Revolution (see pages 
iSo and 192). He died when nearly ninety years of age. His first wife 
was Mary Patterson, whose children were — 

1. Archibald, the judge, whose wife was Eleanor Briscoe, of Maryland. 
See page 246, and elsewhere. 

2. Robert, of Rockbridge, whose wife was Elizabeth McClung. He 
was the father of the late Major Alexander B. Stuart, and died in 1S27. 

3. Frances, wife of John Lyle, of Rockbridge, and mother of Mrs. 
John McDowell, who for many years lived near Staunton. 

4. Jane, wife of Alexander Walker. 

5. Mary, wife of Alexander Hall, and mother of the late Alexander 
S. Hall, of Staunton, Dr. Isaac Hall, Jr., and others. 

6. Elizabeth. 

7. Eleanor. 

Major Stuart's second wife was Mary Moore, aunt of t(je Mary Moore 
who is known as "the captive of Abb's Valley." Her children were 
James, Priscilla (wife of Benjamin Hall), Alexander, and Benjamin. 
Alexander was judge of the United States Court in Missouri, father of 
Hon. Archibald Stuart, of Patrick county, and grandfather of General 
J. E. B. Stuart of Confederate fame. 

III. Benjamin Stuart, whose children were — 

1. Major Archibald Stuart, the Captain Stuart of the war of 1S12 (see 
page 231). His sons were Andrew and Benjamin. 

2. John, who removed to Indiana. 

3. Mrs. Nancy Alexander, mother of Dr. Cyrus Alexander. 

4. Mrs. Mary McClung. 

5. Mrs. Bettie Allen, second wife of Dr. James Allen. 

IV. Eleanor, daughter of Achibald and Janet Stuart, married Edward 
Hall, a native of North Ireland, who came to the Valley in 1736, and 
settled on South river, six miles above Waynesboro'. They were mar- 
ried April 24, 1744, and had ten children, several of whom died young. 
Those who lived to maturity were — 

1. Isaac Hall, Sr., born May 12, 1747, and studied medicine in Scot- 
land. He jilted his cousin. Miss Jenny Stuart, and suffered the penalty, 
as stated. His wife was Martha Everard, of Petersburg, where he 

2. Sally Hall, born December 19, 1751, and married Captain James 
Tate, who was killed in the battle of Guilford (see page 192). She after- 
wards married Hugh Fulton. 

3. Thomas Hall, born August 31, 1754 — twice married. 

4. Elizabeth Hall, born December 27, 1756, married Colonel Andrew 
Fulton (see pages 180 and 222). Judge Andrew Fulton, of Wythe, and 
John H. Fulton, M. C. of the Wythe District, were sons of Andrew and 
Elizabeth Fulton. 


5. Alexander Hall, born May 24, 1759, inherited his father's home- 
stead. Married his cousin, Mary Patterson Stuart, daughter of Major 
Alexander Stuart and sister of judge Archibald Stuart. Among his 
children were Mrs. Eleanor Douglass, Alexander S. Hall, Dr. Isaac 
Hall, Jr., and others. 

6. Benjamin Hall, born February 17, 1765, married his cousin Friscilla 
Stuart, and removed to Missouri. 

7. John Hall, born May 31, 1767, settled in North Carolina, and was a 
judge of the Supreme Court of that State (see page 279). 

David Stuart.— It is stated on page 117 that a John Stuart married 
the widow of John Paul, and came to Virginia in 1752 with Governor 
Dinwiddle. The statement, made on the authority of VVithers's " Bor- 
der Warfare," is erroneous. It was David Stuart, the Captain and 
Colonel Stuart of the Indian wars (see pages 83, 90, etc.), who married 
the widow Paul. If he ever was a protege of Dinwiddie he soon lost 
the Governor's good-will, as many of the Dinwiddie letters e.xpress 
great dislike to Stuart. The probability is that Stuart had no personal 
connection with Governor Dinwiddie. He certainly settled in the 
Valley long before Dinwidclie became Governor of the Colony. A 
David Stuart, an adult, was baptized by Mr. Craig January 2t, 1747, 
"after profession of faith and obedience." Colonel Stuart is said to 
have lost his life by drowning in the Shenandoah river. 

The will of David Stuart was admitted to record iMarch 19. 1767. It 
was written by himself, and its meaning is doubtful in several particu- 
lars. The testator mentioned his wife Margaret, his son John, his 
daughters "Sebing" [Sabina] and Elizabeth, and his wife's daughter, 
Mary " Pail " [Paul]. Mrs. Stuart is said to have been a niece of Mrs. 
Lewis, wife of Colonel John Lewis, the pioneer settler, and she and her 
second husband are said to have been married in Wales, before they 
came to America. The will appointed William Lewis and George 
Mathews executors ; but the former declining to serve, Mathews and 
Andrew Lewis qualified as administrators with the will annexed. 

Mary Paul, the step-daughter, married George Mathews (see page 

I. John Stuart, son of David, is well known as Colonel John Stuart, 
of Greenbrier. He was born in Augusta, March 27. 1749 [Johnston's 
Old Clerks\. If the date of his birth is correctly given, he was only 
twenty years of age when he, with Robert McClanahan, Thomas Renick 
(see pages 107 and 125), and William Hamilton, went to Greenbrier, in 
1769, and made the first permanent settlement in that region. McClan- 
ahan was only a few months older. Stuart was a captain in Colonel 
Fleming's regiment at Point Pleasant, in 1774. In 1778 a party of In- 
dians assailed Fort Donnally, eight miles north of the site of Lewisburg, 
then called Fort Union. Stuart was at the latter place, and organizing 
a force, went to the relief of Donnally. The Indians were defeated, 
and never again invaded that region. 


After the organization of Greenbrier county Colonel Stuart was ap- 
pointed clerk of the County Court, and held the office from 1780 until 
1807. At the end of the first deed-book he copied his " Memoir," from 
which we have made copious extracts. His wife was Agatha, daughter 
of Thomas Lewis, and widow of Captain John Frogg, who was killed 
at Point Pleasant (see page 136), to whom he was married in 177S. His 
death occurred August 23. 1823. He had four children, viz. : 

1. Margaret, wife of Andrew Lewis, of Mason county, a son of Colonel 
Charles Lewis. 

2. Jane, wife of Robert Crockett, of Wythe county, and mother of 
the late Charles S. Crockett and of the first wife of Judge James E. 
Brown, of Wythe. [Judge Brown was a son of Judge John Brown, the 
first Chancellor of the Staunton District, and was reared at Staunton. 
His second wife was a daughter of Judge Alexander Stuart. Her only 
son (Alexander Stuart Brown), who died early, was a young man of 
brilliant promise.] 

3. Charles A. Stuart, whose wife was Elizabeth Robinson (see page 


4. Lewis Stuart, married Sarah Lewis,* of Bath county, a grand- 
daughter of Colonel Charles Lewis. He succeeded his father as clerk 
in 1807, and died in 1837. His children were five sons — ^John, Charles 
A., Lewis, Henry, and John— and four daughters. One of his daugh- 
ters was the wife of the late Samuel Price, at one time Lieutenant- 
Governor of Virginia, and afterwards United States Senator from West 
Virginia. The others were Mrs. A. W. G. Davis, Mrs. Charles L. Pay- 
ton, and Mrs. James W Davis. 

IL Sadina Stuart, daughter of David Stuart, married first a Wilson, 
and secondly a Williams. Her daughter, Margaret Lynn Williams, 
married Thomas Creigh, and was the mother of (i) David Creigh (see 
pages 320 and 322), (2) Dr. Thomas Creigh, (3) Mrs. Watson, wife of 
Judge Watson, of Charlottesville. (4) Mrs. John R. Woods, (5) Mrs. Pres- 
ton, wife of the Rev. David Preston. 

in. Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of David Stuart, married Colonel 
Richard Woods, of Albemarle. 

John Stuart. — The Rev. Robert Stuart, of Kentucky, in a brief 
memoir found among his papers after his death, states that his grand- 
parents came from the north of Ireland and settled on Walker's Creek, 
in Borden's tract. Mr. Stuart was born in 1772 and distinctly remem- 
bered his grandmother. He does not mention the names of his grand- 
parents. They brought with them to America an infant son named 
John. Another son was born here, but died young, and there were no 
other children. 

We find from old deeds that John Stuart and Robert Stuart were 
among the early settlers in " Borden's tract," and that their lands were 
contiguous. Of Robert we have no other information. He may have 
been the father of the John Stuart just mentioned and grandfather of 


the Rev. Robert Stuart. Init tlie desceiulants of tfie latter iliink tlie 
grandfather was named John. 

Henjaniin Borden, Sr., who died in 1742, sold .several tracts of land to 
John Stuart. One of these was not conveyed till Benjamin Borden. Jr., 
made the deed, in 1752. Tlie tract is described 35313 acre-, being a 
part of Borden's "large grant of 92.100 acres" A John Stuart— no 
doubt the person Just mentioned— was one of the signers to the " call " 
to the Rev. John Brown, in 1752, to become pastor of Timber Ridge 
and New Providence churches. 

Next we find that Joseph Mays conveyed to John Stuart a half acre 
lot in Staunton in 1757, lot No. 3 at southwest corner of Beverley and 
Augusta streets. On September 6. 1762, John Stuart and Sarah, his 
wife, conveyed one-half of the lot to Thomas Lewis, Andrew Lewis and 
William Preston. Stuart then lived on the other half, as appears from 
the deed. The part retained in 1762 was conveyed by Stuart and wife, 
in 1764, to Israel Christian. In 1765 John Stuart executed to David 
Stuart a bill of sale for a negro woman and child and four feather beds. 

The John Stuart, who was a party to the various deeds referred to, is 
presumed to have been the same person who settled in Borden's tract, 
and the reputed brother of Archibald and David Stuart. His perma- 
nent home was on Walker's Creek, six miles west of Brownsburg. 
During Indian times his dwelling was fortified to resist attacks, and 
several Lochaber-axes and other ancient weapons are still preserved 
by his descendants. It would seem that, feeling insecure on Walker's 
Creek, he removed to Staunton in or about the year 1757, and remained 
there till 1764 or 1765, when the Indian wars of that period were over. 

John Stuart, only child of his parents, was born in 1740 and succeeded 
to his father's estate. He married Elizabeth Walker and lived and died 
on Walker's Creek. During the Revolutionary war he served as a sol- 
dier, and at the battle of Guilford was an officer. According to a family 
tradition, he visited Ireland in 1786 and brought back with him a con- 
siderable sum of money. He died in 1831, when fully ninety years of 
age. His children were— 

r. James Stuart, who when a youth served in the American army at 
Yorktown. He settled at Orangeburg, S. C, and became wealthy. 
Marrying a widow lady, originally IMiss Ann Sabb, he had one child, 
who became the wife of William L. Lewis, a grandson of Colonel 
William Lewis and great-grandson of John Lewis. His grandson, Dr. 
James Stuart Lewis, lives in Florida. 

2. Mary Stuart, daughter of John and Elizabeth, married William 
Walker and had three sons and two daughters. Her descendants are 
Walkers, Rowans, Browns, Stricklers, etc. 

3. John Stuart, married Virginia Wardlaw and removed to Missouri. 

4. Robert Stuart, D. D., born in 1772, educated at Liberty Hall 
Academy and Washington College, licensed as a Presbyterian minister 
in 1795, and went to Kentucky before the year iSoo. For some years 


he was a professor in Transylvania University'. He died in 1S56. His 
wife was Hannah Todd, daughter of General Levi Todd. Among his 
children were John Todd Stuart, a distinguished citizen of Illinois ; 
Robert Stuart, of Missouri ; the Rev. David Stuart, one of whose sons 
(Rev. John T. Stuart) is a missionary in China ; and the Rev. S. D. 
Stuart, of Abingdon, Virginia. The only son of the last named (Addi- 
son Waddfcll Stuart), a noble youth, died in the Confederate army in 
1863, in the eighteenth year of his age. 

5. Joseph Stuart, died of yellow fever in Charleston, S. C, unmarried. 

6. Hugh Stuart, married Betsy Walker and lived on Walker's Creek. 
He was the father of Mrs. Andrew Patterson. 

7. Alexander Stuart, married a Miss Walker and lived on Walker's 
Creek. He had no children. 

8. Walker Stuart, married Mary McClure and lived at the ancestral 
home. He had four sons (John H., William W., Alexander and James 
J.) and one daughter, Mary, wife of James Brown. W. C. Stuart, of 
Lexington, is a son of James J. Stuart; and the Rev. C. G. Brown, a 
missionary in Japan, is a son of James and Mary Stuart Brown. 

The male descendants oi Judge Archibald Stuart are nearly extinct. 
His oldest son. Thomas Jefferson Stuart, had two sons, both of whom 
died young. The elder of the two. Colonel William D. Stuart, was 
mortally wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, as stated on page 333. 

The Hon. Alexander H. H. Stuart, Judge Stuart's fourth and youngest 
son, had three sons, all of whom were cut off in the prime of life and 
unmarried. The eldest, Briscoe Baldwin Stuart, called for his maternal 
grandfather. Judge Briscoe G. Baldwin, was a lawyer of great promise. 
He was about to marry a young lady of Louisiana, and in 1859, while 
on his way to consummate the engagement, the Mississippi steamboat, 
on which he was a passenger, was blown up, and he was so badly 
scalded that he died in a short time. His age was only twenty-three. 
The next son, Alexander H. H., Jr. (called Sandy), while a cadet at the 
Virginia Military Institute, participated in the battle of New Market and 
continued in the military service till the war ended. He then entered 
the University of Virginia as a student and pursued his studies with 
great success ; but at the close of the session of 1S67 he contracted 
fever and died in July following, aged twenty-one years. The third son, 
Archibald Gerard, a talented young lawyer, died in 18S5, aged twenty- 
seven, after a protracted period of ill-health. While a student at the 
University, he achieved great distinction, being awarded "the debater's 
medal " by the Jefferson Society. 

John A. Stuart, a highly respectable farmer of Augusta county, who 
also was with the cadets at New Market, is a son of Archibald P. Stuart, 
Judge Stuart's second son. 

James G. Birnev was not a descendant of Samuel McDowell, as 
stated on page 399. His wife was, however. 



The journal of Thomas Lewis, the first surveyor of Augusta county, 
of the expedition of himself and otliers in 1746, undertaken to establish 
a part of the line of Lord Fairfax's grant, is preserved by Mr. Lewis's 
descendants. It constitutes a manuscript volume of many pages, most 
of which record only courses and distances. But here and there are 
items of more or interest. We make the following extracts : 

''Wednesday, September 10th, y/yd.— Set out from home in order to 
wait on his Majesty's and the Right Honorable Thomas Lord Fairfax's 
Commissioners at Captain Downs's, from thence to proceed to run the 
dividing line between his Majesty and Lord Fairfax, from the head 
spring of the Rappahannock to the head spring of the north branch of 
Potowmack. Lay at Michael Woods's this night, having rode 20 miles." 

At the date mentioned Thomas Lewis was twenty-eight years of age. 
He married in 1749, 3ri<^' '" 1751 bought the land on the Shenandoah 
river, near the present village of Port Republic, where he afterward 
lived and died. His home in 1746 was probably at his father's, on Lewis's 
Creek, about two miles northeast of Staunton. Michael Woods resided 
east of the Blue Ridge in Albemarle. The road, or path, between the 
homes of Lewis and Woods was through Woods's Gap, now called 

Captain Downs was probably the Henry Downs who was presented 
by the Grand Jury of Orange county, in 1740, "for Sabbath-breaking by 
traveling with loaded horses to Sharrendo." See page 3S5. 

On Thursday the surveyor set off very earlj, was very sick, but rode 
thirty-five miles to one Franklin's, where he put up. 

There is a popular belief in Albemarle that Dr. Benjamin Franklin 
at one time owned land and resided in that county, but the Albemarle 
Franklin was no doubt the person mentioned above. Dr. Franklin was 
then in Philadelphia engaged in the study of electricity. The journal 
proceeds : 

''''Friday. — Set out about nine. Got to Captain Downs's, where was 
Colonel Fry, one of his Majesty's Commissioners, Colonel Jefferson, one 
of the surveyors for his Majesty, and Captain Winslo, for Lord Fairfax. 
After having eat breakfast, came the Honorable William Fairfax and 
Colonel William Beverley, his Lordship's Commissioners Likewise 
Colonel Lomax, one of his Majesty's Commissioners. Likewise George 
Fairfax, Esq., and Mr. Robert Brooke, one of his Majesty's surveyors." 

Colonel Joshua Fry, a native of England,, was at one time Professor 
of Mathematics in William and Mary College, but in 1746 resided in 
Albemarle. In 1752, he and Lunsford Lomax and James Patton con- 
cluded a treaty with the Indians at Logstown (see pages 48 and 421). 
He and Peter Jefferson completed the map of Virginia, known as " Fry 


and Jefferson's." In 1754 he was Colonel commanding the Virginia 
forces against the French, and died on his way with the troops to the 
Ohio (see page 61). 

Colonel Peter Jefferson, father of the President, was county surveyor 
and subsequently county lieutenant of Albemarle. He died in 1757 
Colonel Beverley was the patentee of " Beverley's Manor," in Augusta 
(see pages 14 and 15). Colonel Lomax, grandfather of the late Judge 
J. T. Lomax, of Fredericksburg, was a Burgess from Caroline county in 
1756. Mr. Robert Brooke was the grandfather of Governor Robert 
Brooke and Judge Francis T. Brooke. He accompanied Governor 
Spotswood in his visit to the Valley in 1716 (see page 7). 

The baggage for the expedition was brought to Captain Downs's by 
wagon on the 12th, but the horses did not arrive till the next day. In 
the meanwhile a camp was pitched in a field and was visited by "a 
great number of the neighboring gentlemen." 

"Sunday 14th, — Most of the gentlemen went to hear Mr. Marshall 
preach, who returned with them to dinner. Several of us solicited him 
to preach us a sermon before we set off. He, after making several reli- 
gious evasions, showed us the impossibility thereof, and so bid us fare- 

The Rev, Mungo Marshall was rector of the first Orange church. 
This church stood about ten miles northwest of Orange C. H., near an 
ancient mound or burial place of Indians, on the right bank of the 
Rapidan river. Mr. Marshall died in 175S. The vandal spirit which led 
to the dismantling and destruction of many old colonial churches, did 
not spare his grave. His tombstone was carried off, and first used to 
grind paint on, and afterward hides were dressed on it in a tannery. — 
(Bishop Meade). 

Colonel Peter Hedgeman, one of his Majesty's Commissioners, joined 
the party on the 15th, most of which dav was spent in inspecting the 
horses. Fourteen horses were pronounced fit for service. The number 
of men in the expedition was forty. 

Several days more were passed in preparations. During the night of 
the 17th the camp was aroused by a quarrel amongst a crowd of 
drunken people, who used fence rails and stakes "with tolerable good 

The baggage being all packed on the iSth, a part was sent off under 
Mr. Anthony, one of the stewards, by the way of Swift Run Gap, there 
to be ready when the party should get over the Blue Ridge ; the other, 
under Mr. Genn, to the head of the Conoway (now Conway, a branch of 
the Rapidan), where the survey was to begin. 

''Friday, igth. — We set off from Captain Downs's with expectation of 
reaching head of Conoway that night. Colonel Fairfax and Colonel 
Beverley outrode the rest. We called at Hickley's and regaled our- 
selves with some very good cider. Night coming on, we were obliged 
to encamp in the mountain before we got to ye spring head." 


"Saiurdav. 20th.— The mountains made such a dismal appearance 
that John Thomas, one of our men, took sick on the same and so re- 
turned home." 

About 12 o'clock on Saturday the party reached the camp of Fairfax 
and Beverley, at the head of the river, and immediately proceeded to 
discover, if possible, which branch the surveyors had measured up in 
1736. After an unsuccessful search, it was determined on the 22d to 
survey three branches in order to discover the right or main branch. 

'■'Monday, 2gth. — It being impossible to take our horses over the 
Peaked Mountain, they were sent over Massanutten Gap '" (now New 
Market Gap) "with the commissioners and baggage. Mr. Brooke and 
I went up to where we left ofif on Saturday." 

^'Friday, October ^d. — This day several of the horses had like been 
killed, tumbling over rocks and precipices, and ourselves often in the 
utmost danger. This terrible place was called Purgatory " 

^'Sunday, 5///.— Our situation was such we could not lie by. Our 
horses were starving ; our provisions not being sufficient for us more 
than one day made it a work of necessity for us to press forward." The 
mountain was " exceedingly high and very rocky," and darkness over- 
took them. "We had like been killed with repeated falls," and the 
horses were in a pitiable condition. At length they reached the foot 
of the mountain, but their condition was not much improved, "there 
being a large water course" with steep banks, which they had often to 
cross. After almost giving up in despair, they reached camp about ten 
o'clock, " hardly any of us escaping without broken shins or some other 
misfortune." But on the morning of the 6th they began again on the 
top of the mountain. 

The commissioners went by an easier route, leaving the surveyors to 
contend with the difficulties of the mountains. On October 7th "we 
were very much put to for want of water. We could find no other than 
a standing puddle wherein the bears used to wallow." 

" Thursday, gth. — Went to see Coburns who, with his wife and miller, 
a buxom lass, repaid the visit in the evening, which we spent very 
merrily." « 

On Friday the loth the party paused at the furthest settlement to ob- 
tain a supply of provisions, to have the shoes of the horses fastened on, 
and to allow the men to wash t,heir shirts. On the nth they camped 
on Looney's Creek, which runs into the South Branch. 

'• Tuesday, 14th. — This river was called Styx, from the dismal appear- 
ance of the place, being sufficient to strike terror in any human creature. 
The laurel, ivy and spruce pines so extremely thick in a swamp through 
which the river runs that one cannot have the least prospect except he 
look upwards. The water of the river of a dark brownish color, and 
its motion so slow that it can hardly be said to move. Its depth about 
four feet. The bottom muddy and banks high, which made it difficult 
for us to cross. Most of the horses, when they attempted to ascend the 


furthest bank, tumbled with their loads back in the river. Most of our 
baggage, that would have been damaged by the water, was brought 
over on men's shoulders, such as powder, bread and bedclothes." 

Being without food for man or beast on Sunday the 19th. the party 
had to push on. On Monday the 20th, a deer and turkey were killed. 
They heard guns which they supposed were fired by Indians, of whom 
none were seen. On the 28th one of the men surprised and killed a 
buck with an axe, and on the same day the party arrived again at 
Coburn's, on Mill Creek. Several of the inhabitants came to see them. 

" Thursday, soth. — This being his Majesty's birthday," (George II) " we 
concluded the evening in merriment. Drank his Majesty's health, 
which was followed by a discharge of nine guns." 

' Saturday, November Sth. — Went down to Lockhart's and encamped. 
Here we had left some rum and wine, which contributed to our spend- 
ing the evening very pleasantly, rejoicing we had surmounted so many 
difficulties." Here also two of the men fell out and one offered the 
other a " piece of eight " to fight him. The challenged party accepted 
and won the money, which, however, was recovered before a justice in 

On Thursday, November 13th, the commissioners and surveyors were 
together again. The party dined and drank ' his Majesty's and Lord 
Fairfax's health, which was accompanied with a discharge of nine guns 
to each health." At " Buckner's Quarter" they got some cider and 

Colonel Jefferson and Mr. Brooke set off for home on Saturday, No- 
vernber 15th. On Monday the 17th, most of the men being discharged, 
the horses, tents, etc., were set up at auction at Captain Downs's, and 
on the same day Mr. Lewis took leave of the "gentlemen commis- 
sioners " and started home. He arrived at Michael Woods's about two 
o'clock, crossed the Blue Ridge that evening, spent the night at Samuel 
Gay's, and reached home on the 19th, having been absent two months 
and nine days. 

The surveyors had agreed to meet at Colonel Jefferson's the first of 
January "to make out what plans of the Northern Neck were wanted." 
Therefore Mr. Lewis took to horse again on December 30th and arrived 
at Colonel Jefferson's on the 3d of January. The other surveyors, Mr. 
Brooke and Captain Winslo, not coming, he waited till the 14th. and 
then started to Essex county in search of them. He arrived at Mr. 
Brooke's the night of the 15th, visited Colonel Beverley on the i6th, 
and in the evening went with Mr. Brooke to see Colonel Lomax. 

On the 23d the surveyors assembled at Colonel Jefferson's, and began 
their "plans of the Northern Neck" the next day. But finding they 
wanted paper and other things, they had to send to Williamsburg for a 
supply. On Sunday, February 2d, saj-s the journal, " we all rode down 
to Richmond church, where we heard the Reverend Mr. Stith preach. 
The gentlemen of the town treated us to a handsome dinner at Mr. 


Coale's ordinary." By February 21st Captain Winslo and Mr. Lewis 
"made seven plans of the Xortiiern Neck on Lord Fairfax's account, 
according to our instructions from Colonel Beverley," and starting from 
Colonel Jefferson's on the 22d, Mr. Lewis reached home on the 24th. 

Colonel Jefferson's residence was at Shadwell, in Albemarle, whicn is 
seventy or eighty miles from Richmond. It is impossible, therefore, 
that the party could have ridden tociiurch on a Sunday morning, as the 
language of the journal would imply. 

The Rev. William Stith, author of the History of Virginia, was a 
nephew of Sir John Randolpli, one of the original patentees of Bever- 
ley's Manor. In 173S he became rector of Henrico parish, and wrote 
his history in 1740 at Varina, a seat of one of the Randolph's on James 
river below Richmond. From 1752 till his death, in 1755, he was presi- 
dent of William and Mary College. 


A brief account is given on pages 179 and 180 of the expedition of 
the Augusta and Rockbridge men to North Carolina, and of the battle 
of Guilford C. H.. in 1781. Among the militiamen from Rockbridge 
was Samuel Houston, afterward for many years a highly esteemed 
Presbyterian minister. He was twenty-three years of age and a student 
of di\'inity when the call came for the militia to go to the assistance of 
General Greene, who was hard pressed by the British under Corn- 
wallis. Laying aside his books, he fell into the ranks of the Rock- 
bridge company, and had Archibald Stuart, afterward the Judge, as 
his messmate. 

Mr. Houston kept a diary of the trip, writing every day, except one, 
from his departure till his return, which is published in full in the 
Second Series of Foote's Sketches oj Virginia. It is provoking for its 
brevity and omission of much that would now be interesting, but con 
tains some items worth reproducing. 

The Rockbridge company marched from Lexington to Grigsby's on 
Monday, February 26th. The next day they marched fifteen miles, and 
encamped at Purgatory, near Buchanan, in Botetourt county. On the 
ist day of March the distance made was seventeen miles. " Drew 
liquor in the morning,"' says Mr. Houston, and •' I paid fifteen dollars 
for beer to Mrs. Breckinridge." This lady was doubtless the widow of 
Colonel Robert Breckinridge vvlio removed from Staunton to Bote- 
tourt in 1769. The incident mentioned shows that the best women of 
the time were not above gaining money by any honest means. No 
doubt there was need of economy and thrift. But the question arises, 


did young Houston consume $15 worth of beer himself? Perhaps he 
did, as the currency was almost worthless, like Confederate money at 
the close of the late war. 

Apparently, the command was in no hurry to reach the enemy. 
Imagine Stonewall Jackson marching fifteen miles one day and twelve 
the next, while on his way to reinforce General Lee! On Sabbath, 
March the 4th, however, the day's march was twenty miles, to a point 
beyond New London. This day " we pressed a hog, which was served 
without scraping." The word " pressed," so familiar to Confederate 
soldiers, is therefore as old as the Revolution. 

The night of the 4th was spent at a Major Ward's, and on the next day 
the command crossed Staunton river, into Pittsylvania, and marched 
eight miles. On the 6th they advanced fourteen miles, when Major 
Ward overtook them, with a complaint that some of his personal pro- 
perty had disappeared. "We were searched," says the diary, " and 
Mr. Ward's goods found with James Berry and John Harris, who were 
whipped. (!) The same were condemned to ten lashes for disobeying 
the officer of the day on Monday." Harris deserted on the 7th, and 
Berry was arrested and sent to prison. 

The Dan river was crossed on the Sth "At this river some mean 
cowards threatened to return. This morning," (the 9th,) " Lyle, Hays 
and Lusk went to General Greene and returned. The same day deserted 
Geo. Culwell." 

The headquarters of General Greene's army was reached Saturday 
night, the loth, and the battle of Guilford was fought on Thursday, 
March 15th. Colonel McDowell's battalion of Augusta and Rockbridge 
militia composed a part of General Stephen's brigade. The men were 
ordered to "take trees," which they did with alacrity, many, however, 
crowding to one tree. The close firing began near the centre, -but soon 
extended along the line. During the battle, which lasted two hours 
and twenty-five minutes, Mr. Houston discharged his rifle fourteen 
times. He says, "our brigade Major, Mr. Williams, fled." For some 
time the militia displayed great bravery ; they repulsed the enemy 
several times, and after advancing fell back, when compelled, in good 
order. Finally they were assailed by the British light horse, " were 
obliged to run, and many were sore chased and some were cut down." 
Major Stuart was captured and Captain Tate killed. Eight or ten mar- 
ried men of the Bethel church neighborhood were among the slain. 
The men "all scattered," but soon came together, and with Captain 
MoflTett and other officers retreated fourteen miles. The following 
night, " through darkness and rain and want of provisions we were in 
distress. Some parched a little corn." 

Early in the morning of the i6th, the men were "decamped, and 
marched through the rain till we arrived at Speedwell furnace, where 
Greene had retreated from Guilford town." There " we met many of 
our company with great joy, particularly Colonel McDowell." Other 


men given up for lost also came in. In the evening " orders were read 
to draw provisions and ammunition, to be in readiness, which struck a 
panic on the minds of many." 

The ne.xt day the men discussed the matter of returning home, plead- 
ing want of blankets and clotiiing. "Many went oft"; a few were 
remaining when General Lawson came and raged very much ; and 
about ten o'clock all but McDowell came off." 

Dan river was re-crossed on the iSth. "A little afterward many went 
to a tavern, where some got drunk and quarreled." On the 21st. " we 
paid Murphy one dollar a man for horses to carry us over Goose Creek." 
On the 22d, " my brother and I hired Mr. Rountree's horses, and his son 
came with us to Mr. Lambert's, when, after he received forty-three 
dollars, he returned. We eat with Mr. Lambert and paid him ten dol- 
lars each. I bought five books from him and paid him four hundred 
and twelve dollars and a half. We crossed the mountains, and in the 
valley saw the wonderful! mill without wheels, doors or fioors." On 
Friday, March 23d, Mr. Houston arrived at his brother William's, and 
there the diary ended. 

We are accustomed to think of the men of the Revolutionary period 
as all heroes panting for the fray, and patriots ready to make any sac- 
rifice for the cause of their country. Here we see they were very much 
like other people. The men who composed Colonel McDowell's bat- 
talion were, most of tnem, worthy citizens, of fully average courage 
and public spirit. But they were hastily levied, untrained, and easily 
demoralized. However brave each man might be, he could not rely 
with certainty on the support of his neighbors in the ranks, and there- 
fore provided for his own safety according to his best judgment. So 
raw militia have nearly always acted, and nearly always will. 

"The second day after the battle," says Foote, "when they must 
either march further in pursuit of Cornwallis or return home, they all, 
in face of their Colonel marched oft' home. Some, both of the Caro- 
lina and the Virginia militia, fled from the battle-ground on the 15th, 
and never rested till they reached their homes. Some of the \'irginia 
men that fled thus, in the fear lest they should be called to account for 
their flight, retreated into the western ridges of the Alleghany, and 
even to old age dreaded the approach of a stranger, as perhaps an 
officer for their arrest for desertion." 

Woods's Gap (see pages 16 and 386), now called Jarman's Gap, is 
seven miles north of Rockfish Gap. Two of Michael Woods's sons in- 
law were Peter and William Wallace, and the third was John McDowell. 
(See page 31.) Samuel Wallace, son of Peter, removed to the Caldwell 
settlement, now Charlotte county, married Esther Baker, and was the 
father of the distinguished Caleb Wallace, born in 174I. 



Among the natives of Augusta county who achieved distinction 
abroad, General John Sevier, of Tennessee, is entitled to a prominent 

The grandfather of John Sevier, or Xavier, as originally written, was 
a native of France and a Huguenot. On the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, he Med to London, and became a prosperous merchant there. 
His son Valentine came to America, and settled in our Valley, in the 
year 1740, it is said. Various deeds of record show that he "took up," 
or otherwise acquired, several tracts of land in Augusta. In 1753 he 
and his wife, Joannah, conveyed to Andrew Bird a tract lying between 
Limestone Ridge and Smith's Creek, now in Rockingham county. 
Peter Scholl was one of the witnesses to the deed. Some ten years 
afterward he appears to have left the county temporarily, as, in 1763, 
he sold a variety of personal property to Andrew Bird, and described 
himself in the bill of sale as a farmer of Frederick county. He, how- 
ever, did not remain away long, and in October, 1765, being then a resi- 
dent of Augusta, conveyed to George Shumaker 310 acres lying "on 
the south side of the North river of the Shandore, adjoining Benjamin 
Borden's land." Among the witnesses to this deed was John Grattan. 
On the i7th of October, 1769, he conveyed to Thomas Reeves two 
tracts, one of them, 304 acres, on the northwest side of Long Meadow. 

It is probable that in the fall of 1769, Valentine Sevier went to the 
Holston, along with the Campbells, Logan, Knox and others. The 
Campbells settled in what is now Washington county, Virginia, but 
Sevier went on into East Tennessee, then a part of North Carolina. 

John Sevier, son of Valentine, was born in 1745, and probably on 
Smith's Creek. He was sent to school in Fredericksburg, but, accord- 
ing to his biographer, was married when only seventeen years of age. 
In the new settlement on the Holston he soon acquired prominence. 
He was better educated than most of the people, and a fluent and 
efifective speaker. It is said that he took part in the battle of Point 
Pleasant, October 10, 1774, but in what capacity is not known, probably 
as an officer in Captain Evan Shelby's company. In 1777 he was ap- 
pointed judge and administered all the functions of government in 
''Washington District," as the region where he lived was called. As 
Colonel of the mountain men, he commanded in many fights with the 
Indians. At the head of a regiment hastily raised by him he helped 
to win the battle of King's Mountain, on the 7th of October, 1780. 
Thus two Augusta-born men, Sevier and Campbell, were leaders in 
that celebrated engagement. 

The people of the district west of the mountains complained that 
they were neglected by North Carolina, and a few years after the Revo- 


lutionary war undertook, in an irregular way, to constitute a Slate gov- 
ernment and apply (or admission into the Union Sevier was a leader 
in the movement. They called the new State F"ranklin. One of the 
first acts of the Territorial Convention or Legislature was in regard to 
the currency. As there was little money in the country, the act pre- 
scribed that a pound of sugar should pass for a shilling, the skin of a 
raccoon or fox for a shilling and threepence, a beaver, deer or otter 
skin for six shillings, etc. The salaries of all public officers were to be 
paid in this kind of currency. But even a portion of this currency was 
counterfeited, bundles of supposed otter skins turning out to be skins 
of raccoons with otter tails attached to them. 

Sevier was made Governor of Franklin. All connection with North 
Carolina was renounced. The people proposed to join the Union as a 
State, if admitted by Congress ; otherwise they would set up as one 
of the independent nations of the world. 

The Rev. Samuel Houston, a native of Rockbridge, who returned to 
his native county and spent a long life there, was then residing in East 
Tennessee, and actively participated in the political movements men- 
tioned. Very likely at his instigation, the Rev. William Graham, of 
Liberty Hall, Lexington, an able but visionary man, undertook to write 
a constitution for the vState of Franklin, contemplating a sort of theo- 
cratic government. Neither he nor Mr. Houston gained popularity 
thereby, and both were burnt in effigy by a mob in Franklin. 

North Carolina, however, asserted her lawful jurisdiction over the 
territory, and for a time something like civil war existed. In the mean- 
while the Indians became hostile, but Sevier, with his usual prompt- 
ness and skill, at the head of one hundred and sixty men, attacked 
three Indian towns and arrested the trouble. But North Carolina was 
too strong for Franklin, and triumphed in the contest. Sevier was 
declared a traitor, and a warrant for his arrest was issued. He con- 
tinued to show himself in the settlements, and even appeared at a 
militia muster at Jonesboro. That night, however, he was seized and 
hurried to jail at Morganton, in North Carolina. When brought out for 
trial, he was rescued by friends in a crowded court-room, and departed 
for his home. Among the spectators of the scene was Andrew Jackson, 
then a youth of twenty-one 

The next year Sevier was elected to the North Carolina Senate, took 
his seat, was formally pardoned, and, in 1790, was elected to Congress. 
When Tennessee became a State, in 1796, he was elected the first 
Governor, and held the office for three consecutive terms. In 1S03, he 
was again elected Governor, and again served for three terms. From 
1811 to 1S15 he was a member of the United .States House of Repre- 
sentatives. While acting as United .States Commissioner to settle the 
boundary line between Georgia and the territory of the Creek Indians, 
he died m Georgia, in 1815. 

A monument has been erected to Sevier in Nashville, and his remains 


were lately brought from Georgia and interred there. He has been 
described as " a man of dauntless courage and iron will, quick to think, 
quick to act, and a natural-born ruler of men." His nephew, Ambrose 
H. Sevier, was United States Senator from Arkansas, from 1836 to 
1848. The Lieutenant Sevier who was married in Staunton, in 1S07 
(see page 220), was his son. 

William Poage, of Kentuckj', of whom some account is given in 
Collins's History of Kentucky, is believed to be the William Poage, son 
of Robert, mentioned on page 445. 

In company with Daniel Boone, Richard Calloway and John Barney 
Stagner, William Poage and his family settled at Boonesborough, Ken- 
tucky, about September, 1775. In February, 1776, he removed his 
family to the fort at Harrodsburg, and in the spring of that year cleared 
ground and planted corn two miles from the fort. He had great me- 
chanical skill, and during more than two years made all the wooden 
vessels used by the people in the fort. He also made the wood-work 
of the first plow used in Kentucky and the first loom on which weaving 
was done in that State. 

On September i, 1778, a company of sixteen men, including Poage, 
going to Logan's station, was fired upon by a party of Indians in ambush 
near where Danville now stands. Poage was wounded by three balls, 
but his companions escaped unhurt. The next day two parties were 
sent in search of the wounded man, who had clung to his horse till he 
came to a canebrake, where he hid until he heard his friends passing 
near. They carried him to an abandoned cabin near the site of Dan- 
ville, and stopped there for the night. The Indians tracked them to the 
place, surrounded the cabin and waited till morning to make an attack. 
But the whites discovered them in time, sallied out, and killed four of 
the savages, one of whom had Poage's gun. Poage was supported on 
a horse and thus reached home, but died the next day. The recap- 
tured gun was given to Poage's son, then twelve years of age, after- 
wards General Robert Poage, of Mason county, Kentucky. 

The maiden name of William Poage's wife was Ann Kennedy. She 
is presumed to have been a native of Augusta. In 1750, Joseph Ken- 
nedy bought a lot in Staunton (see page 46), and the deed-books show 
that he owned various tracts of land in the county. One of the spurs 
of the Blue Ridge is still called Kennedy's mountain. In 1784, a citi- 
zen of the county, named Matthew Kennedy, died intestate, and he may 
have been Mrs. Poage's father or brother. A prominent item of the 
inventory of his estate is "30 pair of spectacles," which is suggestive of 
Moses Primrose and his famous speculation ; but the deceased was pro- 
bably a merchant or peddler, as the list embraces also pins, needles, 
scissors, brass thimbles, razors, inkhorns, snuff-boxes, etc. His library 


consisted of a Bible, Confesj,ion of Faith, Huston's Four-fold Slate and 
Hervey's Meditations. The administrator's sale occurred on October 
7, 17S4, and one of the principal purchasers was a Martha Kennedy, 
but who she was does not appear. 

.Mrs. Poage was married four times. Her first husband was a Wilson, 
and Poage was the second. After the death of the latter, she married 
Joseph Lindsey, who was killed at the battle of 13lue Licks, in 17S2, 
and finally she married James McGinty. She was a woman of rare 
energy and ingenuity. Collins says she brought the first spinning-wheel 
to Kentucky, and made the first linen manufactured in that country, 
from the lint of nettles, and the first linsey from nettle-lint and buffalo 

Old and New Stvles."— The writer must relieve the first clerk of 
the county court of Augusta of the charge of blundering in respect to 
dates, made against him in the Preface and also on page 29. The first 
term of the court began on December 9, 1745, and the record book 
states that the ne.xt term began on February 11, 1745. This apparent 
error is thus explained : Until 1752, the English year began on the 
25th of March, and consequently January, February and March (up to 
the 25th) belonged to the same year as the preceding December. 
The year 1745 continued till March :^5th, and then the year 1746 
began. France and Scotland adopted the first of January as the begin- 
ning of the year much earlier than England, and, therefore, in the 
latter country, before the change was sanctioned by act of Parliament, 
dates falling between January ist and March 25th, were commonly ex- 
pressed thus: February 10, i745-'6, the last figure indicating the year 
according to the present reckoning. 

Gilbert Christian with his wife, three sons — John, Robert and 
William — and a daughter, .Mary, landed at Newcastle, Pennsylvania, in 
1726, and in 1732 removed to a spot near the site of Staunton, on Chris- 
tian's Creek, giving his name to that stream. John Christian was a 
prominent citizen, and is mentioned on pages 21, 22, 26 and 32. Robert 
married Isabella Tiffins, of the lower valley, and is the ancestor of the 
Christians now living in the county. William is presumed to be the 
Captain William Christian mentioned on page 90. Mary Christian mar- 
ried, first, John Moffett, and secondly, John Trimble. (See pages 191 
and 40S). 

Israel Christian (see page 142) is believed to have been a nephew of 
•Gilbert. He came to Augusta in 1740, and was a prosperous merchant 
at Staunton for some years. 



A little girl named Betsy Henry, while living with her family in Penn- 
sylvania, was captured by Indians and taken west of the Ohio river, at 
what date is not known. Afterward her mother and brothers removed 
to Augusta county and settled on a farm near the present station of 
Spotswood, Valley Railroad. When the Henrys came to Augusta no 
one can tell. A William Henry was living in the county in 1750, when 
he became guardian of one James McCord. This is the earliest men- 
tion of the name Henry in the records of the county. James Henry 
resided here in 1759, ^"^ in that year conveyed 200 acres of land in 
Borden's tract to Robert Telford. There is no deed on record to show 
when he acquired the land. 

Betsy Henry grew up amongst the Indians and, being treated kindly, 
became strongly attached to them. This was not uncommon. The 
Indians, although cruel in war, were not without some good traits, and 
certainly had the art of winning the love of their juvenile captives. 
This young girl, on arriving at womanhood, became the wife of a young 
chief of the Delawares who is said to have been a half-breed French 
and Indian. We have no particular account of him, but Judging from 
such hints as have come down to us, he was probably an Indian of the 
same characteristics as Logan and Tecumseh. 

At length the time arrived for Betsy Henry's return to civilized life. 
According to one version of the story, it was after the defeat of the In- 
dians by Wayne, in 1794, that she came with her husband and others to 
Fort Pitt — where, by treaty, all white prisoners were to be delivered 
up — having lived with the Indians fourteen years. The time, however, 
must have been twenty-five or thirty years earlier than 1794, and proba- 
bly was after Bouquet's treaty of 1764 — possibly several years after, as 
some of the captives did not return till 1767 (see page 125). Whenever 
it was, James Henry, Betsy's brother, was at the rendezvous to meet 
her. She refused to leave her Indian associates. Her brother, however, 
represented that her mother could not die in peace without seeing her, 
and she finally consented to come on a visit, he promising to take her 
back. One tradition is that she brought with her a female child six 
weeks old ; another, that the child was born soon after her return. 

James Henry did not comply with his promise, if he made one, and 
the unfortunate woman grieved till she died. Her husband had not 
forgotten her. The attachment between them is said to have been 
mutual and ardent. As she did not return to him, he came in search of 
her to escort her back to her wilderness home. But her brothers de- 
tained her. and the chief left with the declared intention of resigning 
the office he held in his tribe and returning to reside among the whites.' 
An Indian could give no stronger proof of attachment to his wife. He 


was not heard of afterwards, and it was suspected that his wife's 
brothers pursued and killed him. If they did we should not judge 
their act by our present standard. The dreadful Indian wars had just 
ended, during which every white man had learned to regard the Indians 
as foes to be ruthlessly exterminated like wild beasts. When, therefore, 
the question seemed to be whether a sister or an Indian should be sac- 
rificed, it is not surprising that the latter alternative was chosen. 

The child of Betsy Henry, called Sally Henry, was reared by her 
Uncle James. She became the wife of William Alexander, son of the 
William Alexander mentioned at the foot of page 416 (who died in 
1829), and grandson of Robert Alexander, the first classical teacher in 
the Valley. William Alexander and Sally Henry were married by the 
Rev. John Brown, November 23, 1793, as shown by the public register of 
marriages, and of course, therefore, the return of Betsy Henry with her 
infant was much earlier than 1794. Many of the descendants of William 
and Sally Henry Alexander are among the most respectable people of 
the Valley and elsewhere. 

jNIurder of Joseph Bell and his Wife.— Thomas Bell, of Green- 
brier, the oldest survivor of the " Stone Church Bells,'" a son of Joseph 
Bell, of Rockbridge, gives the following account of the murder of the 
ancestor of that family and his wife, which is briefly mentioned on page 
431. The old couple, Joseph Bell and wife, were sitting in their dwell- 
ing on a certain day — not Sunday — their only son, also named Joseph, 
having gone to a blacksmith's shop; but two female white servants 
being present. A white male " indentured" servant also belonged to 
the family, and wished to marry one of the females referred to, but 
Mrs. Bell opposed the match on account of the bad character of the 
man, and thus incurred his ill-will. This man came in from a field on 
the day referred to, saying that he had finished his work. Mrs. Bell 
was spinning fine flax, and the man enquired what she proposed to 
make. She replied that she intended to weave linen grave-clothes for 
her husband and herself, if she lived long enough. " Do you think 
you will live long enough ?" said the man. and, remarking that he 
would go out and kill a squirrel, took down the gun. Going to the 
door, he turned and fired at Mrs. Bell, mortally wounding her and in- 
stantly killing her husband. Mrs. Bell died the next day. The man 
fled and was never captured. 

Ephrai.m McDowell, when only sixteen years of age, was one of 
the defenders of Londonderry. He lived to be over one hundred years 
old. (See page 16.) 



In the year 176S William Montgomery resided in Augusta county, but 
in wiiat neighborhood we do not know. On the 14th of May of that 
year he received from Michael Malls a deed for 470 acres of land lying 
on " the mountain between the South Fork and the South Branch of 
Potowmack." He may have been, and probably was, an uncle of the 
Rev. John Montgomery an,d of the Rev. Dr. Doak's wife (see pages 1S5 
and 192). 

On the 15th of August, 1769, William Montgomery and Jean, his wife, 
conveyed the tract of 470 acres to Adam Harpole in consideration of 
^82 {S273.33>^j, and soon thereafter removed with the Campbells, 
Logans, and others to the Holston, now Washington county. In the 
new settlement young Benjamin Logan wooed and married Mont- 
gomery's daughter Anne. As stated on page 404, Logan moved to Ken- 
tucky and soon became famous there. His father-in law with his family, 
including the family of Montgomery's son-in-law, Joseph Russell, fol- 
lowed Logan to Kentucky in 1779 and made a settlement twelve miles 
from " Logan's Fort." Early one morning in March, 1780, Montgomery, 
on going to the door of his cabin, was shot and killed by Indians, as was 
a negro boy by his side. Mrs. Montgomery and her youngest child were 
at Logan's, and her sons Thomas and Robert, were absent "spying." 
Her daughter Jane managed to close the door and keep out the sav- 
ages, while William, a brother of Jane, who lived in an adjoining cabin, 
firing his gun through an opening, killed one Indian and wounded 
another. John, another brother, was shot dead in his bed. While this 
was going on, Betsy Montgomery, .some twelve years of age, climbed 
out of a chimney and fled to Pettit's Station, two and a half miles off, 
with the news of the assault Though pursued by an Indian, she arrived 
in safety. All the survivors of the family then at home, except young 
William and Jane Montgomery, were marched off by the Indians as 
prisoners. The savage who had pursued Betsy returned after his com- 
rades had left and was shot by William from his cabin. 

From Pettit's the news was speeded to Logan's Fort. There the horn 
was sounded, and a band of twelve or fifteen men was soon on the 
trail of the Indians. A negro girl found by the pursuers, tomahawked, 
scalped and left for dead, sprang to her feet and survived her wounds. 
The Indians fled when overtaken, but not without heavy loss. A 
touching incident occurred at the moment of the assault. One of the 
Russell girls hearing Logan's voice exclaimed : " There's Uncle Ben ! " 
and instantly an Indian despatched her with his tomahawk. (Collins' 
History of Kentucky). 

The Jane Montgomery mentioned became the wife of General Casey, 


of Kentucky, and was the grandmother of the famous humorist " Mark 
Twain." {Green). 

Jane Logan, the oldest daughter of General Henjamin Logan, was 
the wife of Colonel John Allen. (See page 450). 

The forlorn condition in respect to costume of the Virginia 
regiment which served on the Hudson in 1779, as related on page 172, 
was not unprecedented. According to Shakespeare, King Henry V 
described the equipment of his soldiers on the field of Agincourt in 
almost the same words. He is represented (Act IV, scene 3) as saying 
to the French herald — 

Tell the Constable, 
We are but warriors of the working day ; 
Our gayness and our gilt are all besmirched 
With rainny marching in the painful field ; 
There's not a piece of feather in our host 
(Good argument, I hope, we shall not fly,) 
And time hath wotn us into slovennv. 

Gabriel Jones resided in Frederick county till 1753, when he removed 
to his estate near Port Republic, then in Augusta. (See pages 23 and 
393-) ^^ are informed by Thomas M. Green, Esq., of Maysville, Ken- 
tucky, that the John Lewis who married Mr. Jones's daughter Eliza- 
beth, was not the lawyer of that name, but a merchant of Fredericks- 
burg, and son of Colonel Fielding Lewis by his first wife, who was 
Catharine Washington, a cousin of the General. This John Lewis was 
married five times, and Miss Jones was his third wife. He furnished 
to General Wilkinson the capital for his trading e.\pedition down the 

John Preston probably lived, at the time of his death, on the farm 
northeast of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, owned 
in 18S9 by Mr Erskine Miller. After his death his widow was settled 
by her brother. Colonel Patton, at Spring Farm. (See page 31.) 

Sampson Mathews, first sheriff' of Bath county (see page 202), was 
Colonel Sampson Mathews, previously of Augusta. He lived for a time 
at, or near, Cloverdale, in Bath, but returned to Staunton and died 



A petition to Governor Gooch for the appointment of John McDowell 
as captain of militia, is one of the ''Curiosities of Literature," and we 
give an exact copy of it from Palmer's Calendar of State Papers of 
Virginia. It is dated July 30, 1742. John McDowell was killed in 
December, 1742 (see page 31), and therefore held his command only a 
few months. The paper is as follows : 

"To the Honorable, William Gooch Esqr His Majestys' Lieut: Gover- 
nor &c &c — 

"We your pittionours humbly sheweth that we your Honours Loly 
and Dutifull Subganckes hath ventred our Lives & all that we have In 
fettling ye back parts of Virginia which was a veri Great Hassirt & 
Dengrous, for it is the Hathins (heathens) Road to ware, which has 
proved hortfull to feveril of ous that were ye first fettlers of these back 
woods & wee your Honibill pittionors fome time a goo pittioned your 
Honnour for to have Commisioned men amungst ous which we your 
Honnours moft DuttifuU fubjects thought properist men & men that 
had Hart and'Curidg to hed us yn time of & to defend your Con- 
tray and your poor Sobgacks Intrist from ye voilince of ye Haithen — 
But yet agine we Humbly perfume to poot your Honnour yn mind of our 
Great want of them in hopes that your Honner will Grant a Captins' 
Commission to John McDowell, with follring ofishers, and your Hon- 
nours' Complyence in this will be great fettisfiction to your moft 
DuttifuU and Humbil pittioners — and we as in Duty bond shall Ever 

Among the signers were Andrew and David Moore, George Moffett 
(written " Marfit,") James McDowell, three Andersons, Matthew Lyie 
(written "Lyel,") and others. David Moore was the father of General 
Andrew Moore and Captain William Moore. (See pages 143 and 450). 
George Moffett was no doubt the person of whom Ben Borden was so 
much afraid, as mentioned on page 385, and was probably an uncle of 
Colonel George Moffett. He evidently did not subscribe his own 
name, but it was written by some one else as pronounced by the natives 
of the old country. Very likely some of the signers were among the 
men slain with John McDowell. 

General James Knox. — A family named Knox, of Irish birth, set- 
tled in Augusta county at an early day. The first guardian's bond 
recorded in the county was that of James Knox, guardian of Jenny 


Usher, executed February ii, 1746 (" New Style.") Tlie sureties were 
John Brown and Andrew Pickens. On the 13th of August, 1769, Knox 
conveyed to Patrick Miller 160 acres of land lying on the Cowpasture 
river, and this and other circumstances indicate that the family lived 
in the part of Augusta which is now embraced in Bath county. The 
death of James Knox occurred in 1772. In his will he mentions his 
wife Jean, and among his other children his son James. The younger 
James Knox seems to have been one of the first persons who removed 
from the more thickly settled part of the county to the Holston. There 
is a tradition that he was disappointed in a love affair, having been 
rejected as a suitor by Anne Montgomery, who married Benjamin 
Logan. As early as 1769 he went from the Holston on a hunting expe- 
dition to Kentucky, and afterwards settled there. He was a soldier in 
the Revolution, and a member of the Kentucky Legislature from 1795 
to 1800. In Kentucky he was known as General Knox. He captured 
his old sweetheart at last, marrying her after the death of General 
Logan. He survived till 1822, and she till 1825. It was he (and not 
General Henry Knox, Washington's Secretary of War), who led the 
party of Augusta emigrants, as related on page 452. 

Judge Coalter was married four times. His first wife was a Miss 
Rind, and his second Miss Davenport, both of whom died soon after 
marriage, without children. The mother of his children, Judge Tucker's 
daughter, was his third wife. (See page 221.) 



In Vol. I of Palmer's Calendar of Viy_^inia Stale Papers, we find 
various documents throwing some light upon the history of Augusta 
county, and from them make the following extracts : 

First, in regard to the early settlement of the country. In 1727, 
Robert Lewis, William Lynn, Robert Brooke, Jr., James Mills, William 
Lewis and Beverly Robinson petitioned the Governor and Council as 
follows: "That your Petitioners have been at great Trouble and 
Charges in making Discoveries of Lands among the Mountains, and 
are desirous of taking up some of those Lands they have discovered ; 
wherefore your petitioners humbly pray your Honours to grant him 
an order to take up Fifty Thousand Acres, in one or more tracts, on 
the head branches of James River to the West and Northwestward of 
the Cow Pasture, on seating thereon one Family for every Thousand 
Acres, and as the said Lands are very remote and lying among the 
great North Mountains, being about Two Hundred Miles at least from 
any landing— Your Petitioners humbly pray Your Honours will grant 
them six years' time to seat the same." 

Whether or not the petition was granted does not appear ; but it 
shows that the country west of Staunton, and now in Bath county, had 
been explored, and that the Cowpasture river was known and named 
as early as 1727. It is certain that white people located in that region 
about the time, or soon after, settlements were made immediately 
around Staunton in 1732. The explorers no doubt came up the valley 
of James River, but it is strange they did not ask leave to take up some 
of the rich lands east of the North Mountain. 

Next, we find a letter of William Beverley, dated April 30, 1732, to 
a person whose name is not given, but probably his lawyer. He says : 
" I am persuaded that I can get a number of people from Pensilvania 
to settle on Shenandore, if I can obtain an order of Council for some 
Land there, and I beg ye favour of you to get me an order at the first 
Council held after you receive this, for fifteen thousand acres of Land, 
lying on both sides of ye main River of Shenandore to include an old 
field called and known by ye name of ' Massanutting Town,' (an Indian 
name), and running back and above and below the same on ye said 
river to include the Quantity ; ye s'd main river being yt which runs at 
ye foot of the great ridge of mountains commonly called the blue 
ridge and being those we know in this Colony by ye name of ye 
high mountains ; and because I would not have a dispute with any body, 
or endeavor to supplant them, I desire you will please to search in ye 
Council Office, whether any order, now in force has been granted for 
the said Massannutcing, and if there has not, then I hope I shall obtain 
my desire ; for ye northern men are fond of buying land there, because 


they can buy it, for six or seven pounds pr. hundred acres, cheaper 
than they can take up land in pensilvania and they don't care to go as 
far as Wmsburg." He goes on to claim the land by right of discover v^ 
and survey, and says he has already sold some of the land "to a pen- 
silvania man for 3 lbs. of their money pr. hundred." 

But a colony of sturdy " Dutchmen " were ahead of Mr. Beverley, 
having settled several years before near " Massanutting." In a petition 
to the General Court, composed of the Governor and Council, in 1733, 
they say : "That about four years past they purchased five thousand 
acres of land, of one Jacob Stover, and paid him a great Sum of Money 
for the same, Amounting to Upwards of four hundred pounds : that 
y'r petitioners were mformed and believed the s'd Stover had a good 
right and title in the said land ; that immediately after the s'd" (pur- 
chase, they sold) "all their lands and sev'U other things in the county 
of I.ancaster and Province of Pensylvania, where they then lived, and 
came and seated on the land they had bought of the s'd Stover ; and 
cleared sev'l Plantations and made great Improvements thereon, — 
Since which, they have been Informed that the s'd land (known by 
the name of Massanutting) is claimed by one Wm. Beverly, Gent. — and 
that the s'd Beverly hath brought suit ag'st the s'd Stover for the 
same, in the Hon'ble the Generall Court. Y'r Petitioners further 
shew that should the s'd Beverley recover the said land, that he will 
turn y'r Pet'rs out of Doors, or oblige them to give much more for 
their lands and plantations then they are worth, Which will intirely 
ruin y'r Pet'rs. And yo'r Pet'rs cannot recover anything of the s'd 
Stover, to make them amends for the Loss of their s'd lands, planta- 
tions, etc., he being very poor, and is Daily E.xpected to Run away. 
Wherefore y'r Petitioners humbly hope that as they are not Privy to 
any fraud done by the s'd Stover in obtaining the s'd Land and yo'r 
pet'rs being Dutchmen and not acquainted with the laws here concern- 
ing lands, and Imagined the s'd Stover's right to be good and have run 
the hazard of their lives and estates in removing from Pensylvania to 
the s'd land, being above two hundred miles, and at a time when there 
were very few Inhabitants in them parts of Shenando, and they fre- 
quently visited by Indians. And at this time y'r pet'rs have nine Plan- 
tations fifty-one people, old and young, thereon, and expect to have 
two more familys to seat on the s'd land this spring, nor did y'r pet'rs 
hear of the s'd Beverley's claiming the said land till they had made 
plantations thereon. " Among the petitioners were Milhart Rangdmann, 
Matthew Folk and Adam Muller (Miller? see p. 24). Other names are 
illegible. We presume that Beverley's claim was not allowed by the 
court, or that he abandoned it, as we hear nothing more of it. 

All this shows that fifty-one white people were settled on nine plan- 
tations on the Shenandoah, near the Massanuttan mountain, in 1733; 
that the settlement was made four years before, in 1729 ; and that pre- 
vious to the latter date there were some, " although very few, " white 
inhabitants there. 


For more than twenty years after the first settlement of the Valley 
there was no declared war between the Indians and whites, but the 
latter were constantly annoyed by roving bands of savages who helped 
themselves to whatever movable property they took a fancy to, and 
sometimes burnt the cabins of settlers. On the iSth of May, 1750, Wil- 
liam Harbison, a Justice of the Peace for Augusta county, certified tliat 
about the last week of April, 1749, a party of seven Indians robbed the 
house of Adam Herman, probably on New River, of 9 deer skins and 
I elk skin ; that the ne.xt day six Indians robbed tlie same house of 14 
deer skins and i elk skin; and that the day following, "a number of 
Indians" came and took away 73 deer skins, 6 elk skins, etc., etc. 
This shows also that game was abundant, and that Herman was a 
famous hunter. 


In January, 17S1, a British force under Benedict Arnold invaded Vir- 
ginia. They sailed up James River, entered Richmond without resist- 
ance, on the 5th of January, destroyed all the public stores there and 
some private property, and departed down the river. In the mean- 
while the militia had been called out by Governor Jefferson, Baron 
Steuben being at the head of the State troops. 

From the Calendar, &c.. Vol. I, we learn tnat several hundred men 
from Augusta served in lower Virginia at that time. There is no other 
record of the fact that we know of, and no tradition in regard to it. 

Sampson IMathews, of Staunton, was colonel of militia in Augusta, 
and on the 13th wrote to the Governor that, in accordance with orders, 
he would start to Fredericksburg early the next morning with about 
250 men. The men of the second battalion were then on the way, and 
also the militia from Rockbridge and Rockingham. Major Posey, of 
the ist regmient ot the line, a recruiting officer at Staunton, was to go 
with Col. Mathews. His men would take some beef cattle from 
Augusta, as ordered. 

On January 21st, Col. Mathews wrote to the Governor from Bowling 
Green, in Caroline county, where he was with his command, by order 
of Gen. Muhlenburg, having been at Fredericksburg four days. [He 
made a rapid march, starting from Staunton on the 14th, spending four 
days in Fredericksburg, and arriving at Bowling Green on the 21st.] 
Col. John Bowyer, with about 220 men from Rockbridge, joined him 
that morning. Smiths, vises, files, &c., were needed for the repair ot 

Col. Mathews wrote again, on the 29th, from Cabin Point, in Surry 
county, south of James River, where he had been ordered by Gen. 
Muhlenburg, and was to proceed next morning to Smithfield, in Isle of 


Wight county. He had been detained three days by " wett and the 
badness of the Boats." He had hoped to be supplied with tents and 
ammunition, but was disappointed, and had sent Capt. Robert Gamble 
[lately a prisoner of war at Charleston, S. C, and now probably a vol- 
unteer aid to Col. Mathews,] to solicit these articles. Many of the men 
were sick from exposure, and the Colonel feared a mutiny if they were 
not supplied. "The marching is so severe, the duty on the lines so 
fatiguing, and the exposure to the severity of the season so great, that 
soldiers must be expected to grumble at their hardships." A surgeon 
was needed, and the letter requested that Dr. Foushee, or some other 
good surgeon, be ordered to join the rifle corps. The smiths, vises, 
&c., had not arrived, and many of the rifles were out of order. 

Brig. Gen. Robert Lawson wrote to Governor Jefl^erson, on February 
15th, having left the command in lower Virginia on the 13th. He saj'S : 
"Our advanced Post is near Hall's, consisting of nearly 350 Riflemen 
under Col. Mathews, with about 150 pick'd musqueteers, under Major 
Dick, with some light horse.'' Hall's was in the vicinity of Ports- 
mouth, then occupied by the British. Of this expedition of Col. 
Mathews and his men, we have no further account. 

Gen. Lawson hastened to call out the militia of Prince Edward, 
Cumberland and other counties, to reinforce Gen. Greene in North Caro- 
lina, and is the officer who " raged very much " after the battle of Guil- 
ford, as stated on page 473. 

Gen. Greene being hard-pressed by Cornwallis, it seems to have been 
proposed to send the militia already in the field to North Carolina. In 
reference to this matter, Baron Steuben wrote to the Governor on Feb- 
ruary 15th. He agreed with the Governor that "the militia of Rock- 
bridge, Augusta, Rockingham and Shenandoah would be the most 
speedy reinforcement to General Greene, but they must first be relieved 
by others." He advised that the officers of the militia be consulted, 
and if they consented to go the Governor should issue the necessary 
order. As far as appears, the regiment or battalion under Col. 
Mathews was not ordered to North Carolina, but other companies went 
from the Valley under Tate, Moffett, &c. 

Capt. Robert Porterfield, a paroled prisoner at Charleston, S. C, 
wrote to the Governor February i, 1781, informing him that his brother, 
Lt.-Col. Charles Porterfield, had died on the loth ult., on his way from 
Camden to Charleston, [or Charlestown, as then written,] from the 
effects of a wound at the battle of Camden on August 16, 1780. The 
British officer. Lord Rawdon, had loaned Col. P. thirty guineas, and 
otherwise treated him with great kindness. Capt. Porterfield asked the 
Governor to pay the money, as he flattered himself his brother's ser- 
vices had merited it from the State. If this could not be done, he 
begged a loan of the amount, promising to return it immediately on his 
release. The guineas were not forthcoming, and Capt. P. wrote to 


Gov. Nelson on the subject, August 9, 1781. He liad just arrived at 
Richmond, as a paroled prisoner, from Charleston. 

Joseph Bell, of Augusta county, was, in 1781, what would now be 
called a " Commissary of Subsistence," or at any rate an agent for 
buying cattle, and on February 24th wrote to the Governor in regard 
to his difficulties. The farmers were unwilling to sell to the State on 
credit, and under orders from Col. Wood he had seized many cattle. 
Attorneys, '' paid to do so," pronounced the proceeding illegal, and he 
expected to be sued. He said, however : "Good Whigs perform their 
duty with most punctuality." 

Here we have another echo from the battle of Guilford C. H. — Maj. 
Charles Magill wrote to Governor Jefferson, from Gen. Greene's head- 
quarters, March 19, 1781 : " I am sorry to inform your E.xcellency that a 
number of the Virginia>tnilitia have sully'd the Laurels reap'd in the 
Action, by making one frivolous pretence and another, to return home. 
A number have left the Army very precipitately, the best men from 
Augusta and Rockbridge have been forenxost on this occasion." 

Maj. Thomas Posey, recruiting for the regular army at Staunton, 
wrote to the Governor, March 27, 1781, that according to Baron Steu- 
ben's orders he could not enlist any man under 5 feet 4 inches. There 
were men well adapted to military service vviio did not reach that 
standard, and he asked for discretionary powers in such cases. 

In Vols. II and III of the Calendar, &€., we find letters from public 
officers which give some idea of the state of things in Augusta and 
other Valley counties toward the close of the Revolutionary war. 

Col. William Preston, County Lieutenant of Montgomery, wrote to 
Gov. Jefferson, April 13, 1781, in reference to a call upon the militia 
to reinforce Gen. Greene, that "nearly one-half of our militia are dis- 
affected, and therefore cannot be drawn into the service either by 
threats or otherwise ; and should they be punished according to law, 
they would either withdraw to the mountains, or embody and disturb 
the peace of the county." Moreover, the frontier of the county was 
exposed to depredations by Indians, and the men could not join Greene's 
army without leaving their families exposed, etc. 

On the 20th of April, Col. Samuel McDowell, of Rockbridge, wrote 
to the Governor that a draft was ordered to take place on the 26th, but 
the men drawn would be ruined. Most of them were in service in the 
fall of 1780, when Lesley invaded the State, and were prevented from 
sowing fall crops, and to go now would prevent their raising spring 
crops. With few exceptions they would leave no one at home to work 
their farms. The letter continues : " This county had, in October last, 
Capt. James Gilmer" [Gilmore] "and forty-odd men in Carolina, under 
Gen. Morgan, for near four months, and was at Tarleton's defeat at the 


Cow Pens in South Carolina. And there were also three companies 
drawn when Lesley invaded the State ; their numbers were about i8o 
men. On Arnold's invasion, Col. John Bowyer marched with about 200 
men down the country. And when Gen. Greene retreated into Vir- 
ginia * * I marched near 200 men from this county to join Gen. 
Greene. * * I with difficulty persuaded the men to cross the Dan 
into Carolina, and joined Gen. Greene some time before the battle of 
Guilford Courthouse; continued with him till after the battle, the 15th 
of March last, had i Capt. and 4 Privates killed ; twoCapts. one Ensign 
and seven Privates wounded, and Maj. Stuart and four Privates taken 
prisoners. From these different calls all the men in this county have 
been on hard service, each a term, since October last, and nearly two- 
thirds of them at the same time." 

Maj Thomas Posey wrote to ("ol. William Davies, from Staunton, 
May 18, 1781, as follows: "The number of men which I have collected 
at this place (in deserters and others) amount tb twenty-one. The draft 
for eighteen mouthers has not yet taken place in any of these back 
counties, neither can I inform you at what particular time it will. The 
people seem much aversed to it in Augusta and Rockbridge, but it don't 
amount to a majority I beleave. However, a considerable number 
met at the place apointed for laying of the Districts, and in a very bold 
and daring manner, seased ihe papers and destroyed them. I don't 
know where this may stop, if there is not a timeous check, in Hanging 
a few, for examples to the rest. The cloathing, I understand, the 
different counties is providing, as fast as possible, but none as yet 
delivered to me. I have a deserter or two delivered to me every five 
or six days — I suppose I shall have a comp'y ot them in a short time 
to send down." 

Col. William Fleming, acting Governor of Virginia, was in Staunton 
in June, 1781, and on the 6th wrote to Col. James Wood in reference to 
the removal of the British prisoners of war from Albemarle to Rut- 
land, Mass. On the 9th he wrote again, advising that fifty men be 
stationed at Swift Run Gap, and thirty at Wood's Gap, some of them 
mounted, "so as to discover in time the approach of the enemy," in an 
attempt to rescue the prisoners. 

Stephen Southall, Quartermaster, had 280 barrels of powder and other 
army supplies, stored at Staunton, on the 9th of June, 1781. 

Capt. Henry Young wrote to Col. Davies, June 9th, from Staunton, 
where the Legislature was then in session : " We have reason to appre- 
hend that the enemy are within twelve miles of Charlottesville. I 
apprehended two days ago a Deserter on suspicion of his being a Spie ; 
circumstances are strong against him, but no positive proof; he says 
that the enemy will be hear in a day or two — some confidence is reposed 
in his assertion by many, for my part I give no credit to anything that 
he says. Two days ago Mr. Nicholas gave notice that he shou'd this 
day move to have a Dictator appointed. Gen. Washington and Gen. 
Greene are talked of. I dare say your Knowledge of these worthy 


Gentlemen will be sufficient to convince you tliat neither of tiiem will, 
or ought to. accept of such an appointment." 

Before the introduction of putty, lead was used for fixing panes of 
glass in window sashes, and towards the close of the war was sought 
after for moulding into bullets. On June 13, 1781, Maj. John I'ryor, 
commissary, wrote from Charlottesville to Col. Davies, at Staunton, 
that he had sent out " by Expresses to every probable Houses within 
40 miles extent along the S. V\^ Mountains, to collect what can be found 
in the windows and elsewhere." On the 14th he wrote again that lead 
was "amazingly wanted in camp." 

By order of Col. Carrington, Deputy Quartermaster-General, on June 
14, 1781, Staunton was made the principal depot for public stores 
*'beyond the mountains," under Capt. Thomas Hamilton. 

Samuel McDowell qualified, at Staunton, June 19, 1781. before Samp- 
son Mathews, J. P., as a Privy Councillor, and Tliomas Nelson as 

Col. Febiger wrote from camp, June 30, 17'Si, to Col. Davies, at 
Staunton, that the men were " literally naked, shirts and blankets ex- 
cepted" — unless supplied, they would from real nakedness be com- 
pelled to quitt the field." There were not more than twenty pairs of 
good shoes in the regiment. (No wonder men objected to being drafted 
as soldiers under such circumstances). 

One-fourth of the Augusta militia were called out by order of July 
25th, and marched on the 8th of August to lower Virginia and York- 
town, as appears from a letter written by Col. Sampson Mathews, Sep- 
tember 4th. 

The surrender of the British at Yorktown occurred in October, 1781, 
and Col. George Mathews rested on his laurels at his home in Augusta. 
Gen. Greene, however, desired his aid in the South, and on February 
I, 1782, the Colonel wrote a characteristic letter, from "Markit Hill," 
Augusta, to Col. Davies, excusing himself from service. He was " with 
care and rigid economy endavering to presarve from rail want a wife 
and eight helplis children," left in easy circumstances when he went 
into the service. Moreover, his health was seriously impaired. He 
would join Gen. Greene in April, however, if his health permitted. 

Until peace was declared the army had to be kept up, and another 
draft for regular service was ordered early in 1782. Col. George Moffett, 
then County Lieutenant of Augusta, wrote to Governor Harrison, March 
2oth, with "much concern," respecting the draft in Augusta, which was 
appointed for April 9th. He says "it is probable that day will begin 
in tumult and end in something worse." The people were indignant at 
the proposed drawing, and persuaded it was " contrary to the mind of 
the last Assembly." By a temporizing policy he hoped to avert the 
threatened consequences. 

On May ist he wrote again— he had found it impracticable to make 
the draft, and had postponed it till May 28th. The Indians were in- 



vading the frontiers, and he had sent out "above eighty militia," exclu- 
sive of those sent to Tygart's Valley. He thought it a hard case that 
he should be called upon to send 70 men to defend Monongalia county, 
while the frontiers of Augusta were "so distressed by ye Enemy." 
Col. Armand's cavalry had lately come to Staunton, and but for the 
contributions of the inhabitants would " undoubtedly have perished 
or plundered." 

Col. Moffett reported, on November 8, 1782, that more money than 
necessary for recruiting had been raised, but " not one soldier." 

On May 7, 1783, Col. Moftett wrote to the Governor about Indian 
depredations "nigh ye head of greenbrier." Several persons had been 
killed. He had ordered spies to be sent out, etc. 

William Bowyer, sheriff of Augusta, wrote to the Governor, October 
15, 1784, begging indulgence for delinquency. He could not collect the 
public revenue. The condition of the people was distressed, hard 
money scarce, and products unsaleable. 

In Dr. Hale's book called Trans- Alleghany Pioneers, is a letter taken 
from the files of an Irish newspaper of 1774, preserved at Belfast, giving 
an account of the battle of Point Pleasant, and supposed to have been 
written by Capt. Matthew Arbuckle. The writer mentions a Capt. 
McDowell as commanding a company, who is not elsewhere spoken of 
in connection with the battle. He was no doubt Samuel McDowell of 
Augusta, afterwards of Kentucky. (See p. 399.) His company did not 
belong to Col. Charles Lewis's regiment, but probably was composed 
of scouts. 

The Journal of the Virginia Convention of 1776 furnishes some fur- 
ther evidence touching the matter. On a certain day the petition of 
Michael Coalter, a soldier of Capt. McDowell's company, for additional 
pay for services as a carpenter, was presented and allowed ; and on 
another day, the petition of John Lyle, a Lieutenant in Capt. McDow- 
ell's company in "the expedition against the Shawnees," was pre- 
sented. John Lyle was probably the person afterwards known as the 
Rev. John Lyle of Hampshire county, who, according to Foote, was at 
the battle of Point Pleasant. His extra services consisted in aiding 
Sampson Mathews, " a master drover of cattle." This is the only 
reference we have seen to Sampson Mathews as a member of the expe- 
dition. His office was, of course, that of Commissary ; but as the sub- 
sistence of the troops consisted mainly of cattle driven afoot, he was 
styled in the petition as stated. Michael Coalter was the father of 
Judge John Coalter. (For reference to the Journal of the Conven- 
tion, we are indebted to Thos. M. Green, Esq., author of Historical 
Families of Kentucky). 





Caylord Bros., Inc. 

Syracuse, K. Y. 

PAT. JAN 21, 1908 


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